Joseph Smith Wives, Explained

Introduction to Joseph Smith Wives

Joseph Smith (1805-1844), the founder and first president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (also called the Mormon Church), taught and practiced polygamy throughout his life. Although the evidence is scarce, historians believe that shortly after the church was organized, Joseph Smith received a revelation about the practice of plural marriage. Smith probably received this revelation in 1831. In the mid-1830s, historians believe that Smith married his first plural wife, Fanny Alger. The Joseph Smith Fanny Alger marriage did not last. Later historical accounts show that Smith married between 30-40 women during his lifetime.

Most of the records about Joseph Smith’s practice of plural marriage come from the women that he married. There are some commonalities in these records. Most of Joseph Smith wives mention that they were asked by Joseph Smith to participate in the practice of plural marriage. They were wary, even upset about the practice. They prayed and received revelation from God that they should become Smith’s plural wives. They defended Joseph Smith’s character and their marriages to him throughout their lives.

Critics View &
Factual Responses

How Many Wives Did Joseph Smith Have From the Start to End of Polygamy?

Joseph Smith did not record any information about his plural marriages...
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At What Age Were Women Married in 18th-Century?

According to United States law, the minimum age for a woman to be able to marry was 12 years old...
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What Were the Ages of Joseph Smith’s Wives?

Joseph Smith’s wives ages ranged from 14-58. Most of Smith’s wives were in their twenties...
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Did Joseph Smith Have Children With His Plural Wives?

People have always been curious about Joseph Smith’s wives. One of the ongoing questions has been...
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Joseph Smith’s first plural marriage

Although the specific date is unknown, historians believe that Joseph Smith married his first...
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Joseph Smith’s plural marriages

Joseph Smith likely received his revelation about plural marriage around 1831 while he was translating the Bible...
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Joseph Smith and polyandry

Many of Joseph Smith’s wives including Mary Rollins Lightner and Sylvia Session Lyon had living husbands ...
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Helen Mar Kimball

One of Joseph Smith’s youngest wives was Helen Mar Kimball. Kimball was fourteen years old when she was married to Joseph Smith...
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Joseph Smith Wives Timeline

1844

June 27

Brothers Joseph Smith and Hyrum Smith are martyred inside the town jail of Carthage, Illinois, by a mob that broke into the jail.

Biographies

Joseph Smith 1805-1844
Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.
Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng

    1843

    November 2

    Joseph Smith was sealed to Fanny Young Murry (Age 56), one of Brigham Young’s older sisters, on November 2, 1843. Fanny Young was widowed at the time of her marriage to Joseph. Witnesses to the sealing included Augusta Adams Young, one of Brigham Young’s wives.

    Biographies

    Joseph Smith 1805-1844
    Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.
    Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
    https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
    Fanny Young 1787-1859
    Born in 1787 to John and Abigail Howe Young in Hopkinton, Massachusetts, Fanny Young, the elder sister of Brigham Young, married Roswell Murry in 1832, and although he declined Church involvement, she was baptized later that year; their journey took them to Kirtland, Ohio, Missouri, and Nauvoo, Illinois, where Roswell's passing in 1839 left Fanny widowed at the age of fifty-six. Joseph Smith and Fanny Young were sealed on November 2, 1843. Fanny Young Murry died in Utah in 1859 as a faithful member of the church.
    Source: Joseph Smith's Polygamy
    https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/fanny-young/

      1843

      Joseph Smith marries Hanna Ells (Age 29).

      Biographies

      Joseph Smith 1805-1844
      Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.
      Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
      https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
      Hanna Ells 1813-1844
      Born in 1813 in New Castle, England, Hannah Ells, moved to Philadelphia and was baptized by Church missionaries in 1838. Her family relocated to Nauvoo around 1840, where she was sealed to Joseph Smith during the summer of 1843. Eliza R. Snow's 1886 letter to John Taylor mentioned Hannah's sealing, while an 1869 affidavit by John Benbow suggested Joseph Smith's visits to her, possibly conjugal. She passed away in 1844 in Nauvoo.
      Source: Joseph Smith's Polygamy
      https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/hannah-ells/

        1843

        Joseph Smith marries Nancy Winchester (Age 14 - 15).

        Biographies

        Joseph Smith 1805-1844
        Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.
        Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
        https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
        Nancy Winchester 1828-1876
        Born in 1828 in Erie County, Pennsylvania, Nancy Winchester embraced Mormonism at a young age after her family's encounter with missionaries, eventually settling in Nauvoo and becoming a devoted member of the Female Relief Society, later marrying Joseph Smith and then Heber C. Kimball, and migrating to Utah. Nancy passed away in Salt Lake City in 1876.
        Source: Wives of Joseph Smith
        http://wivesofjosephsmith.org/33-NancyWinchester.htm

          1843

          September 20

          Joseph Smith is sealed to Malissa Lott (Age 19).

          Biographies

          Joseph Smith 1805-1844
          Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.
          Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
          https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
          Malissa Lott 1824-1898
          Born on January 9, 1824, in Tunkhannock, Pennsylvania, Malissa Lott's parents were baptized in the church in 1834, moving from Kirtland, Ohio, to Missouri and eventually settling in Nauvoo, Illinois, where her father tended Joseph Smith's farm.
          Source: Joseph Smith's Polygamy
          https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/malissa-lott/

            Mid 1843

            Joseph Smith marries Olive Frost (Age 27)

            Biographies

            Joseph Smith 1805-1844
            Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.
            Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
            https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
            Olive Frost 1816-1845
            Olive Frost, born July 24, 1816, in Bethel, Maine, was the eighth child of Aaron Frost and Susannah Grey Frost. After her sister Mary Ann's conversion and marriage to Parley P. Pratt in Kirtland, Ohio, Olive herself joined the Church three years later, accompanying Parley on a mission to England; later, they arrived in Nauvoo in April 1843, and Olive was subsequently sealed to Joseph Smith.
            Source: Joseph Smith's Polygamy
            https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/olive-g-frost/

              1843

              June

              Joseph Smith marries Desdemona Fullmer (Age 32).

              Biographies

              Joseph Smith 1805-1844
              Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.
              Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
              https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
              Desdemona Fullmer 1809-1886
              Desdemona was born on October 6, 1809 in Huntington, Pennsylvania. In 1835, her family settled south of Cleveland, Ohio, where she was baptized two years later. She then moved to Nauvoo and resided in Joseph Smith's home by the spring of 1842 where she was instructed about plural marriage by him. She wed Joseph Smith in July 1843 and later journeyed to Utah with fellow Saints, remaining a devoted member until her passing in 1886.
              Source: Joseph Smith's Polygamy
              https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/desdemona-fullmer/

                1843

                June 12

                Joseph Smith marries Rhoda Richards (Age 58).

                Biographies

                Joseph Smith 1805-1844
                Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.
                Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                Rhoda Richards 1784-1879
                Rhoda Richards was born on August 8, 1784, in Framingham, Massachusetts. She was baptized in 1838 and then moved to Nauvoo with the Saints. Her brother, Willard Richards later became an apostle of the church. Rhoda married Brigham Young in January 1846.
                Source: Joseph Smith's Polygamy
                https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/rhoda-richards/

                  1843

                  June 1

                  Joseph Smith marries Elvira Cowles Holmes (Age 29). Elvira was married to Jonathan Holmes at the time of her marriage Joseph Smith.

                  Biographies

                  Joseph Smith 1805-1844
                  Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.
                  Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                  https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                  Elvira Cowles Holmes 1813-1871
                  Elvira Annie Cowles was born in Unadilla, New York on November 23, 1813. Elvira was baptized into the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on October 19, 1835, and later moved to Nauvoo and resided with Joseph Smith’s family. In 1842 she married Jonathan H. Holmes and was sealed to Joseph Smith on 1 June 1843. Elvira traveled with the Jedediah M. Grant pioneer company to Salt Lake City and resided in Davis County until her passing in 1871.
                  Source: The Joseph Smith Papers
                  https://www.josephsmithpapers.org/person/elvira-annie-cowles-holmes

                    1843

                    May 28

                    Joseph Smith married Emma Hale on January 18, 1827 in South Bainbridge, New York at the home of Zecharaiah Tarble. Joseph Smith is sealed to Emma Hale Smith in Joseph’s red brick store in Nauvoo, Illinois.

                    Biographies

                    Joseph Smith 1805-1844
                    Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.
                    Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                    https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                    Emma Hale Smith 1804-1879
                    Emma Hale Smith, born on July 10, 1804, in Harmony, Pennsylvania, married Joseph Smith in 1827 and played significant roles in the early Church as a scribe during the translations of the Book of Mormon and the Bible. Baptized into The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in 1830, she moved to Kirtland, Ohio, with the Saints. In 1835, Emma edited the first hymnbook of the Church. After enduring persecution in Missouri, she settled in Nauvoo, Illinois, and became the inaugural president of the Female Relief Society of Nauvoo. Following Joseph Smith's death, Emma remained in Nauvoo, marrying Lewis C. Bidamon and affiliating with the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, led by her son Joseph Smith III. Emma Smith passed away in Nauvoo on April 30, 1879.
                    Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                    https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/emma-hale-smith?lang=eng

                      1843

                      May

                      Joseph is married to Lucy Walker on May 1 (Age 17). He also married Sarah Lawrence (Age 17), Maria Lawrence (Age 20), and Helen Mar Kimball (Age 14) sometime in May, as well.

                      Biographies

                      Sarah Lawrence 1826-1872
                      Born in 1826 in Canada, Sarah Lawrence converted to the church in 1837 and moved to Nauvoo, Illinois in 1840. After the death of her father, Sarah's family lived with Joseph Smith after he was appointed their guardian. Sarah and her sister Maria were both married to Joseph Smith, by his first wife Emma in 1843. After early saints migrated to Utah, Sarah traveled to Salt Lake City multiple times before her death in 1872.
                      Source: Joseph Smith's Polygamy
                      https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/sarah-lawrence/
                      Maria Lawrence 1823-1847
                      Maria Lawrence was born in Pickering, Canada before moving to Nauvoo, Illinois in 1840 after the death of her father. In 1837, Maria's family converted to the church and was under the legal guardianship of Joseph Smith after their move to Nauvoo. Both Maria and her sister Sarah were wed to Joseph Smith in 1843. Maria passed away in 1847, three years after the martyrdom of Joseph before the saints traveled out west.
                      Source: Joseph Smith's Polygamy
                      https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/maria-lawrence/
                      Helen Mar Kimball 1828-1896
                      Helen Mar Kimball was born in 1828 in Mendon, New York. Helen was the daughter of Heber C. Kimball, one of the first members of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles. Helen was baptized at the age of eight in Kirtland, Ohio, and later moved with her family to Missouri and Nauvoo. After a discussion with her father, Helen was presented with the idea of becoming one of Joseph's plural wives at the age of fourteen. At first hesitant and against the idea, Helen later agreed to be sealed to Joseph in 1843. Following Joseph's death in 1844, Helen courted and married Horace Whitney in 1846. Helen and Horace migrated with the Saints across the plains to Utah, she lived past six of her eleven children. Helen passed away in 1896, a faithful member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
                      Source: Joseph Smith's Polygamy
                      https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/helen-mar-kimball/

                        1843

                        April-May

                        Joseph Smith marries Almera Johnson (Age 30).

                        Biographies

                        Joseph Smith 1805-1844
                        Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.
                        Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                        https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                        Almera Johnson 1812-1896
                        Born in 1812 in Westfield, Vermont, Almera Johnson was the daughter of Ezekiel and Julia Johnson. She moved with her family to Kirtland, Ohio in 1833 and was baptized into the church in 1836. In 1843, Almera's brother Benjamin was told by Joseph he was to marry his sisters. Benjamin told Almera and she was wed to Joseph Smith by his brother Hyrum in the same year. Following Joseph's death, Almera married Ruben Barton whom she had five children. After their divorce in 1860, Almera moved to Parowan, Utah, and resided there until her death in 1896.
                        Source: Joseph Smith's Polygamy
                        https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/almera-woodard-johnson/

                          1843

                          March

                          Joseph Smith marries Emily Dow Partridge (Age 19) and Eliza Maria Partridge (Age 22).

                          Biographies

                          Joseph Smith 1805-1844
                          Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.
                          Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                          https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng

                            1843

                            Between February and May

                            Joseph Smith marries Flora Ann Woodworth sometime in the Spring of 1843 (Age 17).

                            Biographies

                            Joseph Smith 1805-1844
                            Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.
                            Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                            https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                            Flora Ann Woodworth 1826-1850
                            Born in 1846 in New York, Flora Ann Woodworth was born to Lucien and Phebe Woodworth. After contacting church missionaries, the Woodworth family was baptized in 1832 and migrated with early saints in Missouri and Illinois. Much of the records pertaining to Flora and Joseph's marriage are unclear. After Joseph's death, Flora became a widow at seventeen and married a non-member, Carlos Grove months after. In 1846, she traveled with the saints to Salt Lake City, Utah ultimately passing away while on the journey in Iowa. She was presumed to be in her early twenties at the time of her passing.
                            Source: Joseph Smith's Polygamy
                            https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/flora-ann-woodworth/

                              1843

                              February

                              Joseph Smith marries Ruth Vose Sayers (Age 35). Ruth is married to Edward Sayers at the time of her marriage to Joseph.

                              Biographies

                              Joseph Smith 1805-1844
                              Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.
                              Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                              https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                              Ruth Vose Sayers 1808-1884
                              Ruth Vose was born on February 26, 1808, in Watertown, Massachusetts. After introduction to the church in 1832, Ruth was baptized by Prophet Brigham Young in 1836 and married non-member Edward Sayers in 1841. Edward and Ruth then moved to Nauvoo, Illinois, and lived on a farm. During this time, Joseph Smith was arrested and escaped jail. Through communication with friends, he stayed in hiding at Edward and Ruth's home for a week before moving to a new hiding spot. Six months later, Joseph and Ruth were married for eternity, like other wives of Joseph Smith who were already married, Edward and Ruth stayed married and lived together. Following Joseph's death, Ruth and Edward lived in Boston for five years before ultimately settling in Utah. After the death of her husband in 1861, Ruth passed away in 1884 in Salt Lake City, Utah.
                              Source: Joseph Smith's Polygamy
                              https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/ruth-vose/

                                1842-1843

                                April

                                Joseph Smith marries Marinda Johnson Hyde (Age 47). Marinda is married to Orson Hyde at the time of her marriage to Joseph.

                                Biographies

                                Joseph Smith 1805-1844
                                Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.
                                Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                Marinda Johnson Hyde 1815-1886
                                Marinda Johnson Hyde, born on June 28, 1815, in Pomfret, Vermont, joined The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in April 1832, and married Orson Hyde on September 4, 1834, in Kirtland, Ohio. After living in Ohio and Missouri, she moved to Nauvoo, Illinois, migrated to Salt Lake City in 1852, and passed away in Salt Lake City on March 24, 1886.
                                Source: The Joseph Smith Papers
                                https://www.josephsmithpapers.org/person/marinda-nancy-johnson-hyde
                                Orson Hyde 1805-1878
                                Orson Hyde, born in 1805 in Oxford, Connecticut, joined the Church in Kirtland, Ohio, and became a high priest. He preached with Samuel Smith in the eastern United States, participated in the School of the Prophets, and served in various leadership roles. In 1835, he was ordained as a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles. He went on missions to New York, Upper Canada, England, and Palestine, and settled in Nauvoo, Illinois. Later, he served another mission to Great Britain before migrating to Utah Territory in 1852.
                                Source: The Joseph Smith Papers
                                https://www.josephsmithpapers.org/person/orson-hyde

                                  1842

                                  August

                                  Joseph Smith is married to Martha McBride Knight (Age 37).

                                  Biographies

                                  Joseph Smith 1805-1844
                                  Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.
                                  Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                  https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                  Martha McBride Knight 1805-1901
                                  Born on March 17, 1805, Martha McBride was born in Chester Township, New York. At the age of twenty-one, Martha married Vinson Knight in 1826. Eight years later, Vinson and Martha met the Prophet Joseph Smith and converted to the church in 1834. After their move to Nauvoo, Vinson was called to serve as a bishop of one of the congregations and worked with Joseph Smith on church assignments. Vinson was taught by Joseph Smith about plural marriage and was then married to his second wife, Philinda Merrick. In 1842, Vinson fell ill and passed away leaving his two wives widowed. As a result, Martha married Joseph Smith in 1842 and there are few records about the details of their marriage. After the death of Joseph, Martha married Heber C. Kimball in 1844 and joined church members traveling west to Utah. She settled down in Utah, primarily living in the Ogden and Weber area, and passed away in 1901 in Hooper, Utah.
                                  Source: Wives of Joseph Smith
                                  http://www.wivesofjosephsmith.org/17-MarthaMcBrideKnight.htm

                                    1842

                                    July 27

                                    Sarah Ann Whitney (Age 17) was sealed to Joseph Smith with the consent of Newel K. Whitney and Elizabeth Whitney, her parents. The sealing ceremony itself was officiated by Newel K. Whitney, who followed the precise words outlined in a revelation given by the Prophet.

                                    Biographies

                                    Joseph Smith 1805-1844
                                    Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.
                                    Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                    https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                    Sarah Ann Whitney 1825-1873
                                    Sarah Ann Whitney was born March 22, 1825, to Newel K. Whitney and Elizabeth Ann Smith in Kirtland, Ohio. The Whitney family became members of the church around 1831 and Newel was called to serve as a church bishop. After moving to Missouri, the family settled in Nauvoo, Illinois. Newel, Elizabeth, and Sarah were taught by the prophet Joseph Smith about the concept of plural marriage and were hesitant at first to allow Joseph to marry their daughter. Following prayer, time, and consideration Newel officiated the marriage of Joseph and Sarah with Elizabeth as a witness. After Joseph's death in 1844, Sarah married Heber C. Kimball in 1845. Heber and Sarah had seven children together, two of the children passed away as infants. Sarah passed away in 1873 in Salt Lake City, Utah at the age of forty-eight.
                                    Source: Wives of Joseph Smith
                                    http://wivesofjosephsmith.org/16-SarahAnnWhitney.htm
                                    Newel K. Whitney 1795-1850
                                    Newel K. Whitney was born in Marlboro, Vermont on February 5, 1795. While traveling on a business trip, Newel met Elizabeth Ann Smith in Kirtland, Ohio. The couple courted for three years before their marriage in 1823. While seeking to learn more about God and church, Newel and Elizabeth had a spiritual experience that prompted them to prepare and wait for an answer. Soon after, Newel and Elizabeth were baptized into the church and met Joseph and Emma Smith, who then lived in the Whitney home for a couple of years. Newel K. Whitney's home served as a meetinghouse for the early prophets and apostles to learn and have discussions about the church. Throughout his ministry, Newel was called to be a bishop in the church twice and became the manager of financial operations. After crossing the plains with his family, Newel served as a bishop in Salt Lake City for two years before his death in 1850.
                                    Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                    https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/ensign/2012/10/small-and-simple-things/newel-k-whitney-1795-1850?lang=eng

                                      1842

                                      July

                                      Joseph Smith marries Delcena Johnson (Age 35).

                                      Biographies

                                      Joseph Smith 1805-1844
                                      Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.
                                      Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                      https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                      Delcena Johnson 1806-1854
                                      Delcena Johnson was born November 19, 1806, in Westfield, Vermont. At the age of twenty-three, she married Lyman Sherman in 1829. In January of 1832, both Lyman and Delcena converted to the church and moved to Kirtland, Ohio. Lyman passed away in 1839 and in 1842 Delcena married Joseph Smith for a time. Following his death, Delcena was given a choice on who to be sealed to for eternity at the Nauvoo temple, she was sealed by proxy to Lyman for all eternity. Delcena passed away in Salt Lake City, Utah at the age of forty-eight, a lifelong, faithful member of the church.
                                      Source: Joseph Smith's Polygamy
                                      https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/delcena-didamia-johnson/#link_ajs-fn-id_2-5612

                                        1842

                                        June 29

                                        Joseph Smith marries Eliza R. Snow (Age 38) in Illinois.

                                        Biographies

                                        Joseph Smith 1805-1844
                                        Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.
                                        Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                        https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                        Eliza R. Snow 1804-1887
                                        Born on January 21, 1804, Eliza R. Snow was the second of seven children in the Snow family. Eliza initially met Joseph Smith in 1831 but did not convert to Mormonism until 1835 and soon after moved to Kirtland, Ohio from Massachusetts. As a school teacher, Eliza lived with the Smith family in Kirtland and taught their children. In 1842, Emma Smith organized the Relief Society in the church and as the acting president, called Eliza to serve as secretary. Later that year, Eliza was married to Joseph and lived with the Smith family continuing to teach the children for six months, she then moved to live with Jonathan Holmes. After the death of Joseph, Eliza married Brigham Young and traveled to the Salt Lake Valley where she served as the Relief Society president until her death in 1887.
                                        Source: Wives of Joseph Smith and Joseph Smith's Polygamy
                                        http://wivesofjosephsmith.org/15-ElizaRSnow.htm https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/eliza-r-snow/

                                          1842

                                          June

                                          Joseph Smith marries Sarah Kingsley Cleveland (Age 53). Sarah is married to John Cleveland at the time of her marriage to Joseph.

                                          Biographies

                                          Joseph Smith 1805-1844
                                          Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.
                                          Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                          https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                          Sarah Kingsley Cleveland 1788-1856
                                          Sarah Kingsley was born to Ebenezer Kingsley and Sarah Chaplin on October 22, 1788, in Massachusetts. After being widowed, Sarah married John Cleveland in 1826, who was not a member of the church. Sarah and John moved to Illinois and helped many saints after they were driven out of Missouri. The Cleveland's also housed Joseph and his family after being released from jail. In 1842, Sarah and John moved to Nauvoo across the street from the Smith family. Sarah was called by Emma Smith to serve as her counselor in the Relief Society presidency. Around this time, Sarah was married to Joseph at the age of fifty-four and she served as a witness to many of his plural marriages. After Joseph's death, Sarah wanted to move with early pioneers to Salt Lake City and leave her husband in Nauvoo but ultimately stayed in Nauvoo until her death in 1856.
                                          Source: Joseph Smith's Polygamy
                                          https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/sarah-kingsley/

                                            1842

                                            June

                                            Joseph Smith marries Elizabeth Davis Durfee (Age 51). Elizabeth is married to Jabez Durfee at the time of her marriage to Joseph.

                                            Biographies

                                            Joseph Smith 1805-1844
                                            Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.
                                            Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                            https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                            Elizabeth Davis Durfee 1791-1876
                                            Elizabeth Davis Durfee, born on March 11, 1791, joined The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 10, 1831, and married Jabez Durfee on March 3, 1834. She was later sealed to Joseph Smith, with the date remaining unclear, and a subsequent proxy sealing to Joseph Smith on January 22, 1846. Her journey with the early Saints led her to Winter Quarters during the westward migration, where she eventually made the decision to depart from the migrating Saints, returning to Illinois. In the late 1860s, she was baptized into the RLDS Church.
                                            Source: Joseph Smith's Polygamy
                                            https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/elizabeth-davis/

                                              1842

                                              March 9

                                              Joseph Smith marries Patty Bartlett Sessions (Age 47). Patty is married to David Sessions at the time of her marriage to Joseph.

                                              Biographies

                                              Joseph Smith 1805-1844
                                              Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.
                                              Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                              https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                              Patty Bartlett Sessions 1795- 1892
                                              On February 4, 1795, Patty Barlett was born to Enoch and Anna Bartlett in Bethel, Maine. Patty married David Sessions at the age of seventeen in 1812. About twenty years later, the Sessions family was taught about the church and were baptized in 1834. Following their conversion, the family moved from Missouri to Nauvoo to settle in church headquarters. In 1842, Patty was sealed to Joseph Smith for eternity while she was married to David. It is unclear if David knew of the union, but they continued to live, raise their children together, and receive their endowments in the Nauvoo temple. Following Joseph's death, Patty and her family relocated with early Saints across the plains to Salt Lake City, Utah. Patty was known as the "Mormon midwife" and delivered over 3,900 babies in Maine, Missouri, Illinois, and Utah until she was 85 years old. Patty passed away on December 14, 1892, at the age of 97 in Bountiful, Utah.
                                              Source: Joseph Smith's Polygamy
                                              https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/patty-bartlett/

                                                1842

                                                February

                                                Joseph Smith marries Mary Rollins Lightner (Age 23), wife of Adam Lightner. Mary continues to live with Adam after her marriage to Joseph.

                                                Biographies

                                                Joseph Smith 1805-1844
                                                Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.
                                                Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                                Mary Rollins Lightner 1818-1913
                                                Mary Rollins was born on April 9, 1818, in Lima, New York. In 1830, Mary and her family moved near Kirtland, Ohio where they were baptized by Parley P. Pratt. In 1835, Mary married Adam Lightner who was not a member of the church in Independence, Missouri and together they had two children. Mary had many interactions with the prophet Joseph Smith before their marriage. When Joseph proposed, Mary was initially against and very hesitant toward the marriage. After receiving her own personal revelation, Mary and Joseph were sealed in 1842 for time and all eternity by Brigham Young. Mary continued to live with Adam and their children while sealed to Joseph. Following Joseph's death in 1844, Mary was also sealed to Brigham Young. Marya and Adam lived in Nauvoo until 1863 when they relocated to Utah settling in Minersville, Utah. Mary passed away on December 17, 1913, and was the last living plural wife of Joseph Smith.
                                                Source: The Joseph Smith Papers
                                                https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/mary-elizabeth-rollins/

                                                  1842

                                                  February 8

                                                  Joseph Smith marries Sylvia Sessions Lyon (Age 23). Sylvia is married to Windsor Lyon at the time of her marriage to Joseph. Sylvia continues to live with Windsor after her marriage to Joseph.

                                                  Biographies

                                                  Joseph Smith 1805-1844
                                                  Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.
                                                  Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                  https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                                  Sylvia Sessions Lyon 1818-1882
                                                  Sylvia Porter Sessions was born on July 31, 1818, in Andover, Maine, to David Sessions and Patty Bartlett Sessions. Sylvia was baptized with her family in 1835 and moved to Missouri in 1837. While in Missouri, Sylvia met Windsor Lyon and they were married on April 21, 1838, in a ceremony performed by Joseph Smith. In 1840, the Lyons relocated to Nauvoo and she was sealed to the Prophet in 1842 at the age of 23 and continued to live with Windsor. Sylvia relocated to Utah in 1854 and passed away at the age of 64 in 1882 in Bountiful, Utah.
                                                  Source: Wives of Joseph Smith
                                                  http://www.wivesofjosephsmith.org/08-SylviaSessionsLyon.htm

                                                    1842

                                                    January 6

                                                    Joseph Smith marries Agnes Coolbrith (Age 30). Seven years prior to Agnes’ marriage to Joseph, Agnes married Joseph’s brother Don Carlos. Don Carlos passed away during the summer of 1841, leaving Agnes widowed. Joseph and Agnes’ wedding was in secret.

                                                    Biographies

                                                    Joseph Smith 1805-1844
                                                    Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.
                                                    Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                    https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                                    Agnes Coolbrith 1808-1876
                                                    Agnes Moulton Coolbrith was born July 9, 1808. Agnes joined the church in Boston, Massachusetts on June 26, 1832. After her conversion, she relocated to be with members of her faith in Kirtland, Ohio where she stayed at the Smith home. In 1835, Agnes married Joseph’s brother, Don Carlos. Eventually, Agnes and Don settled in Nauvoo with their three daughters. In the summer of 1841, Don Carlos contracted malaria and passed away. Five months later, Joseph and Agnes were sealed and not much is known about their marriage. After Joseph's death, Agnes married Joseph and Don's cousin, George Albert Smith. When George Albert and the rest of the Saints were leaving for Utah, Agnes did not migrate with them. She wed a fourth husband, William Pickett, and moved to California, leaving her religious background. Agnes passed away on December 26, 1876, in Los Angeles, California.
                                                    Source: Joseph Smith's Polygamy
                                                    https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/biographies-of-josephs-plural-wives/

                                                      1841

                                                      December 11

                                                      Joseph Smith marries Presendia Huntington Buell (Age 31), sister of Zina D. Huntington on December 11, 1841. Presendia Huntington Buell was married to Norman Buell at the time of her marriage to Joseph.

                                                      Biographies

                                                      Joseph Smith 1805-1844
                                                      Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.
                                                      Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                      https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                                      Presendia Huntington Buell 1810-1892
                                                      Presendia Huntington was born on September 7, 1810, in Watertown, New York. In 1827, she married Norman Buell. Her first introduction to the church was through sister Zina in 1835, and both she and Norman joined the following year. In 1838, the couple moved to Missouri where Norman became distanced from the church. In 1841, Presendia was married to Joseph Smith but continued to live with Norman. After Joseph Smith’s passing in 1844, Presendia married Heber C. Kimball and continued to live with her first husband, Norman, until May 1846. Presendia relocated with Saints to Utah and died in 1892.
                                                      Source: Joseph Smith's Polygamy
                                                      https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/presendia-lathrop-huntington/
                                                      Zina D. Huntington 1821-1901
                                                      Zina Diantha Huntington was born in 1821 in New York. She joined the Church with her family in 1835. With other saints, she lived in Kirtland, Missouri in 1838, and Nauvoo. While living in Nauvoo, Zina became one of the first to be taught about plural marriage by Joseph and she declined his initial proposal. In 1841 she married Henry Jacobs, but a few months later, after receiving personal revelation on plural marriage, she decided to be sealed for eternity to Joseph Smith. After Joseph’s death, Zina was sealed to Brigham Young in 1846 while still civilly married to Henry. Zina had two sons with Henry and one daughter with Brigham Young. Zina also served as the General President of the Relief Society in 1890 and passed away on August 28, 1901.
                                                      Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                      https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/zina-d-h-young?lang=eng

                                                        1841

                                                        October 27

                                                        Zina (Age 20), married Henry B. Jacobs on March 7, 1841. Six months later, Zina chose to marry Joseph Smith. Henry was aware of the marriage and he and Zina continued to live together.

                                                        Biographies

                                                        Joseph Smith 1805-1844
                                                        Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.
                                                        Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                        https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng

                                                          1841

                                                          April 5

                                                          Louisa Beaman (Age 25), or Louisa Beman, was married to Joseph Smith and the ceremony was performed by her brother-in-law, Joseph Bates Noble, at his home.

                                                          Biographies

                                                          Joseph Smith 1805-1844
                                                          Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.
                                                          Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                          https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                                          Joseph Bates Noble 1810-1900
                                                          Joseph Bates Noble was born on January 14, 1810 in Massachusetts. At five years old, his family moved to New York, and in 1832, Brigham Young, Joseph Young, and Heber C. Kimball taught him and he was baptized. Joseph had been engaged to Mary Adeline Beman for two years and they were married September 11, 1834. Throughout his life, Joesph had many callings in the church and served missions. Joseph and his family crossed the plains to Salt Lake City, Utah. During this time, Joseph practiced plural marriage and was married to seven total wives where he had thirty-three children. He passed away in Bear Lake, Idaho, on August 7, 1900, at the age of 90.
                                                          Source: Wiki Tree
                                                          https://www.wikitree.com/wiki/Noble-997

                                                            1838

                                                            Joseph Smith married Lucinda Morgan Harris (Age 31). A friend of Lucinda’s (Sarah Pratt) implied the marriage was in Missouri during Joseph’s stay there. Lucinda was married to George W. Harris, a member of the church at this time.

                                                            Biographies

                                                            Joseph Smith 1805-1844
                                                            Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.
                                                            Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                            https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                                            Lucinda Morgan Harris 1801-1856
                                                            Lucinda was born September 27, 1801, and at 18 years old married anti-Latter-day Saint spokesman Mason Morgan in 1819. Morgan was murdered seven years later, and Lucinda married George Harris in 1830. The Harris family was baptized in 1834 and by March 1838 was living in Missouri, where George served on the high council. The date of the marriage between Joseph and Lucinda is uncertain. After marrying Joseph, Lucinda continued to live with George. After the death of Joseph in 1844, Lucinda and George separated before 1853 and she relocated to Memphis, Tennessee at the home of her daughter where she passed away in 1856.
                                                            Source: Joseph Smith's Polygamy
                                                            https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/lucinda-pendleton-harris/

                                                              Circa 1833

                                                              Joseph Smith married his first plural wife Fanny Alger (Age 16-18) in Kirtland, Ohio. Although the marriage was undocumented, Mosiah Hancock, states that Joseph did not approach Fanny first, but spoke with Levi Hancock (Samuel Alger’s brother-in-law) to approach Fanny and her Father.

                                                              Biographies

                                                              Joseph Smith 1805-1844
                                                              Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.
                                                              Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                              https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                                              Fanny Alger 1816-1889
                                                              Fanny Alger was born in 1816 to Samuel and Clarissa Alger, Fanny Alger joined the church with her family in the 1830s. Fanny worked in Joseph Smith's household in Kirtland, Ohio and it was reported that Fanny Alger married Joseph Smith, becoming his first plural wife, there are very few sources about their union. Fanny left Ohio to go to Missouri with her parents. In 1836, Fanny married Solomon and together they had five children. In 1874, she joined the Universalist church in Indiana. Fanny died at the home of her son in Indianapolis, Indiana, on November 29, 1889.
                                                              Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                              https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/fanny-alger?lang=eng

                                                                1827

                                                                January 18

                                                                Joseph Smith marries Emma Hale (age 22) in South Bainbridge, New York at the home of Zecharaiah Tarble.

                                                                Biographies

                                                                Joseph Smith 1805-1844
                                                                Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.
                                                                Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng

                                                                  Joseph Smith Wives - Joseph Smith MurderedJoseph Smith Wives - Fanny YoungJoseph Smith Wives - Joseph Smith Youngest Wives Lucy Walker Kimball Joseph Smith Wives - Joseph Smith How Many Wives Martha McBride KnightJoseph Smith Wives - Youngest Wives Sarah Ann WhitneyJoseph Smith Youngest Wives - Joseph Smith Fanny Alger - Zina D. Huntington (Age 20)Joseph Smith Fanny Alger - Joseph Smith Youngest Wives - Lucinda Morgan Harris (Age 37)Joseph Smith Fanny Alger - Joseph Smith Youngest WivesJoseph Smith Wives - Joseph Smith Fanny Alger - Joseph Smith Emma Hale Smith
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                                                                  1844

                                                                  Joseph Smith is Murdered in Carthage, Illinois

                                                                  Historical Context

                                                                  What Critics Are Saying

                                                                  Response to Critics View

                                                                  Brothers Joseph Smith Joseph Smith cancel 1805-1844 Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.

                                                                  Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                  https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                                                  and Hyrum Smith are martyred inside the town jail of Carthage, Illinois, by a mob that broke into the jail. info Information Sources: cancel https://doctrineandcovenantscentral.org/historical-context/dc-135/ Image Source: Carthage Jail The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

                                                                    1843

                                                                    Joseph Smith Marries Fanny Young, His Last Known Plural Wife

                                                                    Historical Context

                                                                    What Critics Are Saying

                                                                    Response to Critics View

                                                                    Joseph Smith Joseph Smith cancel 1805-1844 Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.

                                                                    Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                    https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                                                    was sealed to Fanny Young Fanny Young cancel 1787-1859 Born in 1787 to John and Abigail Howe Young in Hopkinton, Massachusetts, Fanny Young, the elder sister of Brigham Young, married Roswell Murry in 1832, and although he declined Church involvement, she was baptized later that year; their journey took them to Kirtland, Ohio, Missouri, and Nauvoo, Illinois, where Roswell's passing in 1839 left Fanny widowed at the age of fifty-six. Joseph Smith and Fanny Young were sealed on November 2, 1843. Fanny Young Murry died in Utah in 1859 as a faithful member of the church.

                                                                    Source: Joseph Smith's Polygamy
                                                                    https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/fanny-young/
                                                                    Murry (Age 56), one of Brigham Young’s older sisters, on November 2, 1843. Fanny Young was widowed at the time of her marriage to Joseph. Witnesses to the sealing included Augusta Adams Young, one of Brigham Young’s wives. info Information Sources: cancel https://www.josephsmithpapers.org/person/fanny-young-murray https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/fanny-young/ https://catalog.churchofjesuschrist.org/assets/37a65922-1a7e-4e6c-9e5b-fa5104b53cbe/0/55 Image Source: Fanny Young Joseph Smith's Polygamy

                                                                      1843

                                                                      Joseph Smith Marries Hanna Ells

                                                                      Historical Context

                                                                      What Critics Are Saying

                                                                      Response to Critics View

                                                                      Joseph Smith Joseph Smith cancel 1805-1844 Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.

                                                                      Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                      https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                                                      marries Hanna Ells Hanna Ells cancel 1813-1844 Born in 1813 in New Castle, England, Hannah Ells, moved to Philadelphia and was baptized by Church missionaries in 1838. Her family relocated to Nauvoo around 1840, where she was sealed to Joseph Smith during the summer of 1843. Eliza R. Snow Eliza R. Snow cancel 1804-1887 Born on January 21, 1804, Eliza R. Snow was the second of seven children in the Snow family. Eliza initially met Joseph Smith in 1831 but did not convert to Mormonism until 1835 and soon after moved to Kirtland, Ohio from Massachusetts. As a school teacher, Eliza lived with the Smith family in Kirtland and taught their children. In 1842, Emma Smith organized the Relief Society in the church and as the acting president, called Eliza to serve as secretary. Later that year, Eliza was married to Joseph and lived with the Smith family continuing to teach the children for six months, she then moved to live with Jonathan Holmes. After the death of Joseph, Eliza married Brigham Young and traveled to the Salt Lake Valley where she served as the Relief Society president until her death in 1887.

                                                                      Source: Wives of Joseph Smith and Joseph Smith's Polygamy
                                                                      http://wivesofjosephsmith.org/15-ElizaRSnow.htm https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/eliza-r-snow/
                                                                      's 1886 letter to John Taylor mentioned Hannah's sealing, while an 1869 affidavit by John Benbow suggested Joseph Smith's visits to her, possibly conjugal. She passed away in 1844 in Nauvoo.


                                                                      Source: Joseph Smith's Polygamy
                                                                      https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/hannah-ells/
                                                                      (Age 29). info Information Sources: cancel https://www.josephsmithpapers.org/person/hannah-ells http://wivesofjosephsmith.org/

                                                                        1843

                                                                        Joseph Smith Marries Nancy Winchester

                                                                        Historical Context

                                                                        What Critics Are Saying

                                                                        Response to Critics View

                                                                        Joseph Smith Joseph Smith cancel 1805-1844 Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.

                                                                        Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                        https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                                                        marries Nancy Winchester Nancy Winchester cancel 1828-1876 Born in 1828 in Erie County, Pennsylvania, Nancy Winchester embraced Mormonism at a young age after her family's encounter with missionaries, eventually settling in Nauvoo and becoming a devoted member of the Female Relief Society, later marrying Joseph Smith and then Heber C. Kimball, and migrating to Utah. Nancy passed away in Salt Lake City in 1876.

                                                                        Source: Wives of Joseph Smith
                                                                        http://wivesofjosephsmith.org/33-NancyWinchester.htm
                                                                        (Age 14 - 15). info Information Sources: cancel https://www.josephsmithpapers.org/person/nancy-maria-mariah-winchester-arnold http://wivesofjosephsmith.org/

                                                                          1843

                                                                          Joseph Smith Marries Malissa Lott

                                                                          Historical Context

                                                                          What Critics Are Saying

                                                                          Response to Critics View

                                                                          Joseph Smith Joseph Smith cancel 1805-1844 Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.

                                                                          Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                          https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                                                          is sealed to Malissa Lott Malissa Lott cancel 1824-1898 Born on January 9, 1824, in Tunkhannock, Pennsylvania, Malissa Lott's parents were baptized in the church in 1834, moving from Kirtland, Ohio, to Missouri and eventually settling in Nauvoo, Illinois, where her father tended Joseph Smith's farm.

                                                                          Source: Joseph Smith's Polygamy
                                                                          https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/malissa-lott/
                                                                          (Age 19). info Information Sources: cancel http://wivesofjosephsmith.org/ https://www.josephsmithpapers.org/person/malissa-melissa-lott-willis

                                                                            Mid 1843

                                                                            Joseph Smith Marries Olive Frost

                                                                            Historical Context

                                                                            What Critics Are Saying

                                                                            Response to Critics View

                                                                            Joseph Smith Joseph Smith cancel 1805-1844 Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.

                                                                            Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                            https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                                                            marries Olive Frost Olive Frost cancel 1816-1845 Olive Frost, born July 24, 1816, in Bethel, Maine, was the eighth child of Aaron Frost and Susannah Grey Frost. After her sister Mary Ann's conversion and marriage to Parley P. Pratt in Kirtland, Ohio, Olive herself joined the Church three years later, accompanying Parley on a mission to England; later, they arrived in Nauvoo in April 1843, and Olive was subsequently sealed to Joseph Smith.

                                                                            Source: Joseph Smith's Polygamy
                                                                            https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/olive-g-frost/
                                                                            (Age 27) info Information Sources: cancel http://wivesofjosephsmith.org/ https://www.josephsmithpapers.org/person/olive-gray-frost-young

                                                                              1843

                                                                              Joseph Smith Marries Desdemona Fullmer

                                                                              Historical Context

                                                                              What Critics Are Saying

                                                                              Response to Critics View

                                                                              Joseph Smith Joseph Smith cancel 1805-1844 Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.

                                                                              Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                              https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                                                              marries Desdemona Fullmer Desdemona Fullmer cancel 1809-1886 Desdemona was born on October 6, 1809 in Huntington, Pennsylvania. In 1835, her family settled south of Cleveland, Ohio, where she was baptized two years later. She then moved to Nauvoo and resided in Joseph Smith's home by the spring of 1842 where she was instructed about plural marriage by him. She wed Joseph Smith in July 1843 and later journeyed to Utah with fellow Saints, remaining a devoted member until her passing in 1886.

                                                                              Source: Joseph Smith's Polygamy
                                                                              https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/desdemona-fullmer/
                                                                              (Age 32). info Information Sources: cancel http://wivesofjosephsmith.org/ https://www.josephsmithpapers.org/person/desdemona-wadsworth-fullmer-mclane

                                                                                1843

                                                                                Joseph Smith Marries Rhoda Richards

                                                                                Historical Context

                                                                                What Critics Are Saying

                                                                                Response to Critics View

                                                                                Joseph Smith Joseph Smith cancel 1805-1844 Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.

                                                                                Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                                https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                                                                marries Rhoda Richards Rhoda Richards cancel 1784-1879 Rhoda Richards was born on August 8, 1784, in Framingham, Massachusetts. She was baptized in 1838 and then moved to Nauvoo with the Saints. Her brother, Willard Richards later became an apostle of the church. Rhoda married Brigham Young in January 1846.

                                                                                Source: Joseph Smith's Polygamy
                                                                                https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/rhoda-richards/
                                                                                (Age 58). info Information Sources: cancel http://wivesofjosephsmith.org/ https://www.josephsmithpapers.org/person/rhoda-richards

                                                                                  1843

                                                                                  Joseph Smith Marries Elvira Cowles Holmes

                                                                                  Historical Context

                                                                                  What Critics Are Saying

                                                                                  Response to Critics View

                                                                                  Joseph Smith Joseph Smith cancel 1805-1844 Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.

                                                                                  Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                                  https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                                                                  marries Elvira Cowles Holmes Elvira Cowles Holmes cancel 1813-1871 Elvira Annie Cowles was born in Unadilla, New York on November 23, 1813. Elvira was baptized into the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on October 19, 1835, and later moved to Nauvoo and resided with Joseph Smith’s family. In 1842 she married Jonathan H. Holmes and was sealed to Joseph Smith on 1 June 1843. Elvira traveled with the Jedediah M. Grant pioneer company to Salt Lake City and resided in Davis County until her passing in 1871.

                                                                                  Source: The Joseph Smith Papers
                                                                                  https://www.josephsmithpapers.org/person/elvira-annie-cowles-holmes
                                                                                  (Age 29). Elvira was married to Jonathan Holmes at the time of her marriage Joseph Smith. info Information Sources: cancel http://wivesofjosephsmith.org/ https://www.josephsmithpapers.org/person/elvira-annie-cowles-holmes

                                                                                    1843

                                                                                    Joseph Smith is Sealed to Emma Hale Smith

                                                                                    Historical Context

                                                                                    What Critics Are Saying

                                                                                    Response to Critics View

                                                                                    Joseph Smith Joseph Smith cancel 1805-1844 Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.

                                                                                    Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                                    https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                                                                    married Emma Hale on January 18, 1827 in South Bainbridge, New York at the home of Zecharaiah Tarble. Joseph Smith is sealed to Emma Hale Smith Emma Hale Smith cancel 1804-1879 Emma Hale Smith, born on July 10, 1804, in Harmony, Pennsylvania, married Joseph Smith in 1827 and played significant roles in the early Church as a scribe during the translations of the Book of Mormon and the Bible. Baptized into The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in 1830, she moved to Kirtland, Ohio, with the Saints. In 1835, Emma edited the first hymnbook of the Church. After enduring persecution in Missouri, she settled in Nauvoo, Illinois, and became the inaugural president of the Female Relief Society of Nauvoo. Following Joseph Smith's death, Emma remained in Nauvoo, marrying Lewis C. Bidamon and affiliating with the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, led by her son Joseph Smith III. Emma Smith passed away in Nauvoo on April 30, 1879.

                                                                                    Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                                    https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/emma-hale-smith?lang=eng
                                                                                    in Joseph’s red brick store in Nauvoo, Illinois. info Information Sources: cancel https://www.josephsmithpapers.org/person/emma-hale-smith https://www.josephsmithpapers.org/event/js-and-emma-smith-married-for-eternity

                                                                                      1843

                                                                                      Joseph is Sealed to Four Women: Lucy Walker, Sarah Lawrence, Maria Lawrence, and Helen Mar Kimball

                                                                                      Historical Context

                                                                                      What Critics Are Saying

                                                                                      Response to Critics View

                                                                                      Joseph is married to Lucy Walker on May 1 (Age 17). He also married Sarah Lawrence Sarah Lawrence cancel 1826-1872 Born in 1826 in Canada, Sarah Lawrence converted to the church in 1837 and moved to Nauvoo, Illinois in 1840. After the death of her father, Sarah's family lived with Joseph Smith after he was appointed their guardian. Sarah and her sister Maria were both married to Joseph Smith, by his first wife Emma in 1843. After early saints migrated to Utah, Sarah traveled to Salt Lake City multiple times before her death in 1872.

                                                                                      Source: Joseph Smith's Polygamy
                                                                                      https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/sarah-lawrence/
                                                                                      (Age 17), Maria Lawrence Maria Lawrence cancel 1823-1847 Maria Lawrence was born in Pickering, Canada before moving to Nauvoo, Illinois in 1840 after the death of her father. In 1837, Maria's family converted to the church and was under the legal guardianship of Joseph Smith after their move to Nauvoo. Both Maria and her sister Sarah were wed to Joseph Smith in 1843. Maria passed away in 1847, three years after the martyrdom of Joseph before the saints traveled out west.

                                                                                      Source: Joseph Smith's Polygamy
                                                                                      https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/maria-lawrence/
                                                                                      (Age 20), and Helen Mar Kimball Helen Mar Kimball cancel 1828-1896 Helen Mar Kimball was born in 1828 in Mendon, New York. Helen was the daughter of Heber C. Kimball, one of the first members of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles. Helen was baptized at the age of eight in Kirtland, Ohio, and later moved with her family to Missouri and Nauvoo. After a discussion with her father, Helen was presented with the idea of becoming one of Joseph's plural wives at the age of fourteen. At first hesitant and against the idea, Helen later agreed to be sealed to Joseph in 1843. Following Joseph's death in 1844, Helen courted and married Horace Whitney in 1846. Helen and Horace migrated with the Saints across the plains to Utah, she lived past six of her eleven children. Helen passed away in 1896, a faithful member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.

                                                                                      Source: Joseph Smith's Polygamy
                                                                                      https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/helen-mar-kimball/
                                                                                      (Age 14) sometime in May, as well. info Information Sources: cancel https://www.josephsmithpapers.org/person/lucy-walker-kimball https://www.josephsmithpapers.org/person/sarah-lawrence-mount https://www.josephsmithpapers.org/person/maria-lawrence-babbitt https://www.josephsmithpapers.org/person/helen-mar-kimball-whitney https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/sarah-lawrence/ https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/maria-lawrence/ https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/eliza-partridge/ https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/emily-dow-partridge/ Image Source: Helen Mar Kimball Deed The Joseph Smith Papers

                                                                                        1843

                                                                                        Joseph Smith Marries Almera Johnson

                                                                                        Historical Context

                                                                                        What Critics Are Saying

                                                                                        Response to Critics View

                                                                                        Joseph Smith Joseph Smith cancel 1805-1844 Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.

                                                                                        Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                                        https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                                                                        marries Almera Johnson Almera Johnson cancel 1812-1896 Born in 1812 in Westfield, Vermont, Almera Johnson was the daughter of Ezekiel and Julia Johnson. She moved with her family to Kirtland, Ohio in 1833 and was baptized into the church in 1836. In 1843, Almera's brother Benjamin was told by Joseph he was to marry his sisters. Benjamin told Almera and she was wed to Joseph Smith by his brother Hyrum in the same year. Following Joseph's death, Almera married Ruben Barton whom she had five children. After their divorce in 1860, Almera moved to Parowan, Utah, and resided there until her death in 1896.

                                                                                        Source: Joseph Smith's Polygamy
                                                                                        https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/almera-woodard-johnson/
                                                                                        (Age 30). info Information Sources: cancel http://wivesofjosephsmith.org/ https://www.josephsmithpapers.org/person/almera-woodward-johnson-barton

                                                                                          1843

                                                                                          Joseph Smith Marries Emily and Eliza Partridge

                                                                                          Historical Context

                                                                                          What Critics Are Saying

                                                                                          Response to Critics View

                                                                                          Joseph Smith Joseph Smith cancel 1805-1844 Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.

                                                                                          Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                                          https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                                                                          marries Emily Dow Partridge (Age 19) and Eliza Maria Partridge (Age 22). info Information Sources: cancel http://wivesofjosephsmith.org/ https://www.josephsmithpapers.org/person/emily-dow-partridge-young https://www.josephsmithpapers.org/person/eliza-maria-partridge-lyman

                                                                                            1843

                                                                                            Joseph Smith is Married and Sealed to Flora Ann Woodworth

                                                                                            Historical Context

                                                                                            What Critics Are Saying

                                                                                            Response to Critics View

                                                                                            Joseph Smith Joseph Smith cancel 1805-1844 Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.

                                                                                            Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                                            https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                                                                            marries Flora Ann Woodworth Flora Ann Woodworth cancel 1826-1850 Born in 1846 in New York, Flora Ann Woodworth was born to Lucien and Phebe Woodworth. After contacting church missionaries, the Woodworth family was baptized in 1832 and migrated with early saints in Missouri and Illinois. Much of the records pertaining to Flora and Joseph's marriage are unclear. After Joseph's death, Flora became a widow at seventeen and married a non-member, Carlos Grove months after. In 1846, she traveled with the saints to Salt Lake City, Utah ultimately passing away while on the journey in Iowa. She was presumed to be in her early twenties at the time of her passing.

                                                                                            Source: Joseph Smith's Polygamy
                                                                                            https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/flora-ann-woodworth/
                                                                                            sometime in the Spring of 1843 (Age 17). info Information Sources: cancel https://www.josephsmithpapers.org/person/flora-ann-woodworth-gove https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/flora-ann-woodworth/

                                                                                              1843

                                                                                              Joseph Smith Marries Ruth Vose Sayers

                                                                                              Historical Context

                                                                                              What Critics Are Saying

                                                                                              Response to Critics View

                                                                                              Joseph Smith Joseph Smith cancel 1805-1844 Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.

                                                                                              Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                                              https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                                                                              marries Ruth Vose Sayers Ruth Vose Sayers cancel 1808-1884 Ruth Vose was born on February 26, 1808, in Watertown, Massachusetts. After introduction to the church in 1832, Ruth was baptized by Prophet Brigham Young in 1836 and married non-member Edward Sayers in 1841. Edward and Ruth then moved to Nauvoo, Illinois, and lived on a farm. During this time, Joseph Smith was arrested and escaped jail. Through communication with friends, he stayed in hiding at Edward and Ruth's home for a week before moving to a new hiding spot. Six months later, Joseph and Ruth were married for eternity, like other wives of Joseph Smith who were already married, Edward and Ruth stayed married and lived together. Following Joseph's death, Ruth and Edward lived in Boston for five years before ultimately settling in Utah. After the death of her husband in 1861, Ruth passed away in 1884 in Salt Lake City, Utah.

                                                                                              Source: Joseph Smith's Polygamy
                                                                                              https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/ruth-vose/
                                                                                              (Age 35). Ruth is married to Edward Sayers at the time of her marriage to Joseph. info Information Sources: cancel http://wivesofjosephsmith.org/ https://www.josephsmithpapers.org/person/ruth-daggett-vose-sayers

                                                                                                1842-1843

                                                                                                Joseph Smith Marries Marinda Johnson Hyde

                                                                                                Historical Context

                                                                                                What Critics Are Saying

                                                                                                Response to Critics View

                                                                                                Joseph Smith Joseph Smith cancel 1805-1844 Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.

                                                                                                Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                                                https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                                                                                marries Marinda Johnson Hyde Marinda Johnson Hyde cancel 1815-1886 Marinda Johnson Hyde, born on June 28, 1815, in Pomfret, Vermont, joined The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in April 1832, and married Orson Hyde Orson Hyde cancel 1805-1878 Orson Hyde, born in 1805 in Oxford, Connecticut, joined the Church in Kirtland, Ohio, and became a high priest. He preached with Samuel Smith in the eastern United States, participated in the School of the Prophets, and served in various leadership roles. In 1835, he was ordained as a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles. He went on missions to New York, Upper Canada, England, and Palestine, and settled in Nauvoo, Illinois. Later, he served another mission to Great Britain before migrating to Utah Territory in 1852.

                                                                                                Source: The Joseph Smith Papers
                                                                                                https://www.josephsmithpapers.org/person/orson-hyde
                                                                                                on September 4, 1834, in Kirtland, Ohio. After living in Ohio and Missouri, she moved to Nauvoo, Illinois, migrated to Salt Lake City in 1852, and passed away in Salt Lake City on March 24, 1886.


                                                                                                Source: The Joseph Smith Papers
                                                                                                https://www.josephsmithpapers.org/person/marinda-nancy-johnson-hyde
                                                                                                (Age 47). Marinda is married to Orson Hyde at the time of her marriage to Joseph. info Information Sources: cancel http://wivesofjosephsmith.org/ https://www.josephsmithpapers.org/person/marinda-nancy-johnson-hyde

                                                                                                  1842

                                                                                                  Joseph is sealed to Martha McBride

                                                                                                  Historical Context

                                                                                                  What Critics Are Saying

                                                                                                  Response to Critics View

                                                                                                  Joseph Smith Joseph Smith cancel 1805-1844 Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.

                                                                                                  Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                                                  https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                                                                                  is married to Martha McBride Knight Martha McBride Knight cancel 1805-1901 Born on March 17, 1805, Martha McBride was born in Chester Township, New York. At the age of twenty-one, Martha married Vinson Knight in 1826. Eight years later, Vinson and Martha met the Prophet Joseph Smith and converted to the church in 1834. After their move to Nauvoo, Vinson was called to serve as a bishop of one of the congregations and worked with Joseph Smith on church assignments. Vinson was taught by Joseph Smith about plural marriage and was then married to his second wife, Philinda Merrick. In 1842, Vinson fell ill and passed away leaving his two wives widowed. As a result, Martha married Joseph Smith in 1842 and there are few records about the details of their marriage. After the death of Joseph, Martha married Heber C. Kimball in 1844 and joined church members traveling west to Utah. She settled down in Utah, primarily living in the Ogden and Weber area, and passed away in 1901 in Hooper, Utah.

                                                                                                  Source: Wives of Joseph Smith
                                                                                                  http://www.wivesofjosephsmith.org/17-MarthaMcBrideKnight.htm
                                                                                                  (Age 37). info Information Sources: cancel https://www.josephsmithpapers.org/person/martha-mcbride-kimball https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/martha-mcbride/ Image Source: Martha McBride Deed The Joseph Smith Papers

                                                                                                    1842

                                                                                                    Joseph Smith is Sealed to Sarah Ann Whitney

                                                                                                    Historical Context

                                                                                                    What Critics Are Saying

                                                                                                    Response to Critics View

                                                                                                    Sarah Ann Whitney Sarah Ann Whitney cancel 1825-1873 Sarah Ann Whitney was born March 22, 1825, to Newel K. Whitney Newel K. Whitney cancel 1795-1850 Newel K. Whitney was born in Marlboro, Vermont on February 5, 1795. While traveling on a business trip, Newel met Elizabeth Ann Smith in Kirtland, Ohio. The couple courted for three years before their marriage in 1823. While seeking to learn more about God and church, Newel and Elizabeth had a spiritual experience that prompted them to prepare and wait for an answer. Soon after, Newel and Elizabeth were baptized into the church and met Joseph and Emma Smith, who then lived in the Whitney home for a couple of years. Newel K. Whitney's home served as a meetinghouse for the early prophets and apostles to learn and have discussions about the church. Throughout his ministry, Newel was called to be a bishop in the church twice and became the manager of financial operations. After crossing the plains with his family, Newel served as a bishop in Salt Lake City for two years before his death in 1850.

                                                                                                    Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                                                    https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/ensign/2012/10/small-and-simple-things/newel-k-whitney-1795-1850?lang=eng
                                                                                                    and Elizabeth Ann Smith in Kirtland, Ohio. The Whitney family became members of the church around 1831 and Newel was called to serve as a church bishop. After moving to Missouri, the family settled in Nauvoo, Illinois. Newel, Elizabeth, and Sarah were taught by the prophet Joseph Smith about the concept of plural marriage and were hesitant at first to allow Joseph to marry their daughter. Following prayer, time, and consideration Newel officiated the marriage of Joseph and Sarah with Elizabeth as a witness. After Joseph's death in 1844, Sarah married Heber C. Kimball in 1845. Heber and Sarah had seven children together, two of the children passed away as infants. Sarah passed away in 1873 in Salt Lake City, Utah at the age of forty-eight.


                                                                                                    Source: Wives of Joseph Smith
                                                                                                    http://wivesofjosephsmith.org/16-SarahAnnWhitney.htm
                                                                                                    (Age 17) was sealed to Joseph Smith Joseph Smith cancel 1805-1844 Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.

                                                                                                    Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                                                    https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                                                                                    with the consent of Newel K. Whitney and Elizabeth Whitney, her parents. The sealing ceremony itself was officiated by Newel K. Whitney, who followed the precise words outlined in a revelation given by the Prophet. info Information Sources: cancel https://www.josephsmithpapers.org/person/sarah-ann-whitney-kimball https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/sarah-ann-whitney/ https://www.josephsmithpapers.org/paper-summary/revelation-27-july-1842/1 Image Source: Sarah Ann Whitney Deed The Joseph Smith Papers

                                                                                                      1842

                                                                                                      Joseph Smith Marries Delcena Johnson

                                                                                                      Historical Context

                                                                                                      What Critics Are Saying

                                                                                                      Response to Critics View

                                                                                                      Joseph Smith Joseph Smith cancel 1805-1844 Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.

                                                                                                      Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                                                      https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                                                                                      marries Delcena Johnson Delcena Johnson cancel 1806-1854 Delcena Johnson was born November 19, 1806, in Westfield, Vermont. At the age of twenty-three, she married Lyman Sherman in 1829. In January of 1832, both Lyman and Delcena converted to the church and moved to Kirtland, Ohio. Lyman passed away in 1839 and in 1842 Delcena married Joseph Smith for a time. Following his death, Delcena was given a choice on who to be sealed to for eternity at the Nauvoo temple, she was sealed by proxy to Lyman for all eternity. Delcena passed away in Salt Lake City, Utah at the age of forty-eight, a lifelong, faithful member of the church.

                                                                                                      Source: Joseph Smith's Polygamy
                                                                                                      https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/delcena-didamia-johnson/#link_ajs-fn-id_2-5612
                                                                                                      (Age 35). info Information Sources: cancel http://wivesofjosephsmith.org/ https://www.josephsmithpapers.org/person/delcena-diademia-johnson-babbitt

                                                                                                        1842

                                                                                                        Joseph Smith Marries Eliza R. Snow

                                                                                                        Historical Context

                                                                                                        What Critics Are Saying

                                                                                                        Response to Critics View

                                                                                                        Joseph Smith Joseph Smith cancel 1805-1844 Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.

                                                                                                        Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                                                        https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                                                                                        marries Eliza R. Snow Eliza R. Snow cancel 1804-1887 Born on January 21, 1804, Eliza R. Snow was the second of seven children in the Snow family. Eliza initially met Joseph Smith in 1831 but did not convert to Mormonism until 1835 and soon after moved to Kirtland, Ohio from Massachusetts. As a school teacher, Eliza lived with the Smith family in Kirtland and taught their children. In 1842, Emma Smith organized the Relief Society in the church and as the acting president, called Eliza to serve as secretary. Later that year, Eliza was married to Joseph and lived with the Smith family continuing to teach the children for six months, she then moved to live with Jonathan Holmes. After the death of Joseph, Eliza married Brigham Young and traveled to the Salt Lake Valley where she served as the Relief Society president until her death in 1887.

                                                                                                        Source: Wives of Joseph Smith and Joseph Smith's Polygamy
                                                                                                        http://wivesofjosephsmith.org/15-ElizaRSnow.htm https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/eliza-r-snow/
                                                                                                        (Age 38) in Illinois. info Information Sources: cancel http://wivesofjosephsmith.org/15-ElizaRSnow.htm https://www.josephsmithpapers.org/person/eliza-roxcy-snow

                                                                                                          1842

                                                                                                          Joseph Smith Marries Sarah Kingsley Cleveland

                                                                                                          Historical Context

                                                                                                          What Critics Are Saying

                                                                                                          Response to Critics View

                                                                                                          Joseph Smith Joseph Smith cancel 1805-1844 Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.

                                                                                                          Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                                                          https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                                                                                          marries Sarah Kingsley Cleveland Sarah Kingsley Cleveland cancel 1788-1856 Sarah Kingsley was born to Ebenezer Kingsley and Sarah Chaplin on October 22, 1788, in Massachusetts. After being widowed, Sarah married John Cleveland in 1826, who was not a member of the church. Sarah and John moved to Illinois and helped many saints after they were driven out of Missouri. The Cleveland's also housed Joseph and his family after being released from jail. In 1842, Sarah and John moved to Nauvoo across the street from the Smith family. Sarah was called by Emma Smith to serve as her counselor in the Relief Society presidency. Around this time, Sarah was married to Joseph at the age of fifty-four and she served as a witness to many of his plural marriages. After Joseph's death, Sarah wanted to move with early pioneers to Salt Lake City and leave her husband in Nauvoo but ultimately stayed in Nauvoo until her death in 1856.

                                                                                                          Source: Joseph Smith's Polygamy
                                                                                                          https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/sarah-kingsley/
                                                                                                          (Age 53). Sarah is married to John Cleveland at the time of her marriage to Joseph. info Information Sources: cancel http://wivesofjosephsmith.org/ https://www.josephsmithpapers.org/person/sarah-marietta-kingsley-cleveland

                                                                                                            1842

                                                                                                            Joseph Smith Marries Elizabeth Davis Durfee

                                                                                                            Historical Context

                                                                                                            What Critics Are Saying

                                                                                                            Response to Critics View

                                                                                                            Joseph Smith Joseph Smith cancel 1805-1844 Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.

                                                                                                            Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                                                            https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                                                                                            marries Elizabeth Davis Durfee Elizabeth Davis Durfee cancel 1791-1876 Elizabeth Davis Durfee, born on March 11, 1791, joined The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 10, 1831, and married Jabez Durfee on March 3, 1834. She was later sealed to Joseph Smith, with the date remaining unclear, and a subsequent proxy sealing to Joseph Smith on January 22, 1846. Her journey with the early Saints led her to Winter Quarters during the westward migration, where she eventually made the decision to depart from the migrating Saints, returning to Illinois. In the late 1860s, she was baptized into the RLDS Church.

                                                                                                            Source: Joseph Smith's Polygamy
                                                                                                            https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/elizabeth-davis/
                                                                                                            (Age 51). Elizabeth is married to Jabez Durfee at the time of her marriage to Joseph. info Information Sources: cancel https://www.josephsmithpapers.org/person/elizabeth-davis-lott http://wivesofjosephsmith.org/ http://wivesofjosephsmith.org/12-ElizabethDavisDurfee.htm

                                                                                                              1842

                                                                                                              Joseph Smith Marries Patty Bartlett Sessions

                                                                                                              Historical Context

                                                                                                              What Critics Are Saying

                                                                                                              Response to Critics View

                                                                                                              Joseph Smith Joseph Smith cancel 1805-1844 Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.

                                                                                                              Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                                                              https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                                                                                              marries Patty Bartlett Sessions Patty Bartlett Sessions cancel 1795- 1892 On February 4, 1795, Patty Barlett was born to Enoch and Anna Bartlett in Bethel, Maine. Patty married David Sessions at the age of seventeen in 1812. About twenty years later, the Sessions family was taught about the church and were baptized in 1834. Following their conversion, the family moved from Missouri to Nauvoo to settle in church headquarters. In 1842, Patty was sealed to Joseph Smith for eternity while she was married to David. It is unclear if David knew of the union, but they continued to live, raise their children together, and receive their endowments in the Nauvoo temple. Following Joseph's death, Patty and her family relocated with early Saints across the plains to Salt Lake City, Utah. Patty was known as the "Mormon midwife" and delivered over 3,900 babies in Maine, Missouri, Illinois, and Utah until she was 85 years old. Patty passed away on December 14, 1892, at the age of 97 in Bountiful, Utah.

                                                                                                              Source: Joseph Smith's Polygamy
                                                                                                              https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/patty-bartlett/
                                                                                                              (Age 47). Patty is married to David Sessions at the time of her marriage to Joseph. info Information Sources: cancel http://wivesofjosephsmith.org/ https://www.josephsmithpapers.org/person/patty-bartlett-parry

                                                                                                                1842

                                                                                                                Joseph Smith Marries Mary Rollins Lightner

                                                                                                                Historical Context

                                                                                                                What Critics Are Saying

                                                                                                                Response to Critics View

                                                                                                                Joseph Smith Joseph Smith cancel 1805-1844 Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.

                                                                                                                Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                                                                https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                                                                                                marries Mary Rollins Lightner Mary Rollins Lightner cancel 1818-1913 Mary Rollins was born on April 9, 1818, in Lima, New York. In 1830, Mary and her family moved near Kirtland, Ohio where they were baptized by Parley P. Pratt. In 1835, Mary married Adam Lightner who was not a member of the church in Independence, Missouri and together they had two children. Mary had many interactions with the prophet Joseph Smith before their marriage. When Joseph proposed, Mary was initially against and very hesitant toward the marriage. After receiving her own personal revelation, Mary and Joseph were sealed in 1842 for time and all eternity by Brigham Young. Mary continued to live with Adam and their children while sealed to Joseph. Following Joseph's death in 1844, Mary was also sealed to Brigham Young. Marya and Adam lived in Nauvoo until 1863 when they relocated to Utah settling in Minersville, Utah. Mary passed away on December 17, 1913, and was the last living plural wife of Joseph Smith.

                                                                                                                Source: The Joseph Smith Papers
                                                                                                                https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/mary-elizabeth-rollins/
                                                                                                                (Age 23), wife of Adam Lightner. Mary continues to live with Adam after her marriage to Joseph. info Information Sources: cancel http://wivesofjosephsmith.org/ https://www.josephsmithpapers.org/person/mary-elizabeth-rollins-lightner

                                                                                                                  1842

                                                                                                                  Joseph Smith Marries Sylvia Sessions Lyon

                                                                                                                  Historical Context

                                                                                                                  What Critics Are Saying

                                                                                                                  Response to Critics View

                                                                                                                  Joseph Smith Joseph Smith cancel 1805-1844 Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.

                                                                                                                  Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                                                                  https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                                                                                                  marries Sylvia Sessions Lyon Sylvia Sessions Lyon cancel 1818-1882 Sylvia Porter Sessions was born on July 31, 1818, in Andover, Maine, to David Sessions and Patty Bartlett Sessions. Sylvia was baptized with her family in 1835 and moved to Missouri in 1837. While in Missouri, Sylvia met Windsor Lyon and they were married on April 21, 1838, in a ceremony performed by Joseph Smith. In 1840, the Lyons relocated to Nauvoo and she was sealed to the Prophet in 1842 at the age of 23 and continued to live with Windsor. Sylvia relocated to Utah in 1854 and passed away at the age of 64 in 1882 in Bountiful, Utah.

                                                                                                                  Source: Wives of Joseph Smith
                                                                                                                  http://www.wivesofjosephsmith.org/08-SylviaSessionsLyon.htm
                                                                                                                  (Age 23). Sylvia is married to Windsor Lyon at the time of her marriage to Joseph. Sylvia continues to live with Windsor after her marriage to Joseph. info Information Sources: cancel https://www.josephsmithpapers.org/person/sylvia-porter-sessions-clark http://wivesofjosephsmith.org/08-SylviaSessionsLyon.htm

                                                                                                                    1842

                                                                                                                    Joseph Smith Marries Agnes Coolbrith

                                                                                                                    Historical Context

                                                                                                                    What Critics Are Saying

                                                                                                                    Response to Critics View

                                                                                                                    Joseph Smith Joseph Smith cancel 1805-1844 Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.

                                                                                                                    Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                                                                    https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                                                                                                    marries Agnes Coolbrith Agnes Coolbrith cancel 1808-1876 Agnes Moulton Coolbrith was born July 9, 1808. Agnes joined the church in Boston, Massachusetts on June 26, 1832. After her conversion, she relocated to be with members of her faith in Kirtland, Ohio where she stayed at the Smith home. In 1835, Agnes married Joseph’s brother, Don Carlos. Eventually, Agnes and Don settled in Nauvoo with their three daughters. In the summer of 1841, Don Carlos contracted malaria and passed away. Five months later, Joseph and Agnes were sealed and not much is known about their marriage. After Joseph's death, Agnes married Joseph and Don's cousin, George Albert Smith. When George Albert and the rest of the Saints were leaving for Utah, Agnes did not migrate with them. She wed a fourth husband, William Pickett, and moved to California, leaving her religious background. Agnes passed away on December 26, 1876, in Los Angeles, California.

                                                                                                                    Source: Joseph Smith's Polygamy
                                                                                                                    https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/biographies-of-josephs-plural-wives/
                                                                                                                    (Age 30). Seven years prior to Agnes’ marriage to Joseph, Agnes married Joseph’s brother Don Carlos. Don Carlos passed away during the summer of 1841, leaving Agnes widowed. Joseph and Agnes’ wedding was in secret. info Information Sources: cancel http://wivesofjosephsmith.org/07-AgnesCoolbrith.htm https://www.josephsmithpapers.org/person/agnes-moulton-coolbrith-pickett

                                                                                                                      1841

                                                                                                                      Joseph Smith Marries Presendia Huntington Buell

                                                                                                                      Historical Context

                                                                                                                      What Critics Are Saying

                                                                                                                      Response to Critics View

                                                                                                                      Joseph Smith Joseph Smith cancel 1805-1844 Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.

                                                                                                                      Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                                                                      https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                                                                                                      marries Presendia Huntington Buell Presendia Huntington Buell cancel 1810-1892 Presendia Huntington was born on September 7, 1810, in Watertown, New York. In 1827, she married Norman Buell. Her first introduction to the church was through sister Zina in 1835, and both she and Norman joined the following year. In 1838, the couple moved to Missouri where Norman became distanced from the church. In 1841, Presendia was married to Joseph Smith but continued to live with Norman. After Joseph Smith’s passing in 1844, Presendia married Heber C. Kimball and continued to live with her first husband, Norman, until May 1846. Presendia relocated with Saints to Utah and died in 1892.

                                                                                                                      Source: Joseph Smith's Polygamy
                                                                                                                      https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/presendia-lathrop-huntington/
                                                                                                                      (Age 31), sister of Zina D. Huntington Zina D. Huntington cancel 1821-1901 Zina Diantha Huntington was born in 1821 in New York. She joined the Church with her family in 1835. With other saints, she lived in Kirtland, Missouri in 1838, and Nauvoo. While living in Nauvoo, Zina became one of the first to be taught about plural marriage by Joseph and she declined his initial proposal. In 1841 she married Henry Jacobs, but a few months later, after receiving personal revelation on plural marriage, she decided to be sealed for eternity to Joseph Smith. After Joseph’s death, Zina was sealed to Brigham Young in 1846 while still civilly married to Henry. Zina had two sons with Henry and one daughter with Brigham Young. Zina also served as the General President of the Relief Society in 1890 and passed away on August 28, 1901.

                                                                                                                      Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                                                                      https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/zina-d-h-young?lang=eng
                                                                                                                      on December 11, 1841. Presendia Huntington Buell was married to Norman Buell at the time of her marriage to Joseph. info Information Sources: cancel http://wivesofjosephsmith.org/ https://www.josephsmithpapers.org/person/presendia-lathrop-huntington-kimball

                                                                                                                        1841

                                                                                                                        Joseph Smith is Married to Zina D. Huntington

                                                                                                                        Historical Context

                                                                                                                        What Critics Are Saying

                                                                                                                        Response to Critics View

                                                                                                                        Zina (Age 20), married Henry B. Jacobs on March 7, 1841. Six months later, Zina chose to marry Joseph Smith Joseph Smith cancel 1805-1844 Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.

                                                                                                                        Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                                                                        https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                                                                                                        . Henry was aware of the marriage and he and Zina continued to live together. info Information Sources: cancel https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/callings/relief-society/relief-society-presidents/zina-h-young?lang=eng https://www.josephsmithpapers.org/person/zina-diantha-huntington-young http://wivesofjosephsmith.org/05-ZinaHuntingtonJacobs.htm https://catalog.churchofjesuschrist.org/assets/2b809845-b3f2-4de8-8066-3941663245b7/0/0 https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/zina-diantha-huntington/ Image Source: Zina D. Huntington The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

                                                                                                                          1841

                                                                                                                          Joseph Smith is Married to Louisa Beaman

                                                                                                                          Historical Context

                                                                                                                          What Critics Are Saying

                                                                                                                          Response to Critics View

                                                                                                                          Louisa Beaman (Age 25), or Louisa Beman, was married to Joseph Smith Joseph Smith cancel 1805-1844 Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.

                                                                                                                          Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                                                                          https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                                                                                                          and the ceremony was performed by her brother-in-law, Joseph Bates Noble Joseph Bates Noble cancel 1810-1900 Joseph Bates Noble was born on January 14, 1810 in Massachusetts. At five years old, his family moved to New York, and in 1832, Brigham Young, Joseph Young, and Heber C. Kimball taught him and he was baptized. Joseph had been engaged to Mary Adeline Beman for two years and they were married September 11, 1834. Throughout his life, Joesph had many callings in the church and served missions. Joseph and his family crossed the plains to Salt Lake City, Utah. During this time, Joseph practiced plural marriage and was married to seven total wives where he had thirty-three children. He passed away in Bear Lake, Idaho, on August 7, 1900, at the age of 90.

                                                                                                                          Source: Wiki Tree
                                                                                                                          https://www.wikitree.com/wiki/Noble-997
                                                                                                                          , at his home. info Information Sources: cancel https://www.josephsmithpapers.org/person/louisa-beman-beaman-young https://site.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/manual/gospel-topics-essays/plural-marriage-in-kirtland-and-nauvoo?lang=eng https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/louisa-beaman/ https://catalog.churchofjesuschrist.org/assets/1be463f6-001a-4392-817b-9b02abdec83f/0/0

                                                                                                                            1838

                                                                                                                            Joseph Marries Lucinda Morgan Harris

                                                                                                                            Historical Context

                                                                                                                            What Critics Are Saying

                                                                                                                            Response to Critics View

                                                                                                                            Joseph Smith Joseph Smith cancel 1805-1844 Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.

                                                                                                                            Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                                                                            https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                                                                                                            married Lucinda Morgan Harris Lucinda Morgan Harris cancel 1801-1856 Lucinda was born September 27, 1801, and at 18 years old married anti-Latter-day Saint spokesman Mason Morgan in 1819. Morgan was murdered seven years later, and Lucinda married George Harris in 1830. The Harris family was baptized in 1834 and by March 1838 was living in Missouri, where George served on the high council. The date of the marriage between Joseph and Lucinda is uncertain. After marrying Joseph, Lucinda continued to live with George. After the death of Joseph in 1844, Lucinda and George separated before 1853 and she relocated to Memphis, Tennessee at the home of her daughter where she passed away in 1856.

                                                                                                                            Source: Joseph Smith's Polygamy
                                                                                                                            https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/lucinda-pendleton-harris/
                                                                                                                            (Age 31). A friend of Lucinda’s (Sarah Pratt) implied the marriage was in Missouri during Joseph’s stay there. Lucinda was married to George W. Harris, a member of the church at this time. info Information Sources: cancel https://www.josephsmithpapers.org/person/lucinda-pendleton-harris http://wivesofjosephsmith.org/ http://wivesofjosephsmith.org/03-LucindaMorganHarris.htm Image Source: Joseph Practices Polygamy The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

                                                                                                                              Circa 1833

                                                                                                                              Joseph Smith Marries His First Plural Wife, Fanny Alger

                                                                                                                              Historical Context

                                                                                                                              What Critics Are Saying

                                                                                                                              Response to Critics View

                                                                                                                              Joseph Smith Joseph Smith cancel 1805-1844 Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.

                                                                                                                              Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                                                                              https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                                                                                                              married his first plural wife Fanny Alger Fanny Alger cancel 1816-1889 Fanny Alger was born in 1816 to Samuel and Clarissa Alger, Fanny Alger joined the church with her family in the 1830s. Fanny worked in Joseph Smith's household in Kirtland, Ohio and it was reported that Fanny Alger married Joseph Smith, becoming his first plural wife, there are very few sources about their union. Fanny left Ohio to go to Missouri with her parents. In 1836, Fanny married Solomon and together they had five children. In 1874, she joined the Universalist church in Indiana. Fanny died at the home of her son in Indianapolis, Indiana, on November 29, 1889.

                                                                                                                              Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                                                                              https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/fanny-alger?lang=eng
                                                                                                                              (Age 16-18) in Kirtland, Ohio. Although the marriage was undocumented, Mosiah Hancock, states that Joseph did not approach Fanny first, but spoke with Levi Hancock (Samuel Alger’s brother-in-law) to approach Fanny and her Father. info Information Sources: cancel https://www.josephsmithpapers.org/person/fanny-alger-custer http://wivesofjosephsmith.org/02-FannyAlger.htm https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/fanny-alger/ https://site.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/manual/gospel-topics-essays/plural-marriage-in-kirtland-and-nauvoo?lang=eng Image Source: Joseph Smith The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

                                                                                                                                1827

                                                                                                                                Joseph Smith Married Emma Hale

                                                                                                                                Historical Context

                                                                                                                                What Critics Are Saying

                                                                                                                                Response to Critics View

                                                                                                                                Joseph Smith Joseph Smith cancel 1805-1844 Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.

                                                                                                                                Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                                                                                https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                                                                                                                marries Emma Hale (age 22) in South Bainbridge, New York at the home of Zecharaiah Tarble. info Information Sources: cancel https://history.churchofjesuschrist.org/content/joseph-and-emma?lang=eng Image Source: Emma Smith The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

                                                                                                                                  Timeline

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