Joseph Smith Polygamy, Explained

Introduction to Joseph Smith Polygamy

Historically, various members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, or the Mormon Church, participated in the biblical practice of plural marriage or polygamy. The legacy of Joseph Smith polygamy is still debated today. The Book of Mormon says that one reason God condones polygamy is to “raise up seed.” Mormons also believe that Joseph Smith was called to restore all things, including the biblical practice of polygamy for a period of time. This website will focus on outlining the origins of polygamy. Joseph Smith’s role in the inception of the practice has often been missed in previous discussions of polygamy. Smith’s role in the beginnings of polygamy was not well documented, but over time, the availability of sources has increased, which has helped clarify Smith’s role in the introduction of polygamy. Historians believe that Smith first received revelation about the practice of plural marriage in the early 1830s and his first plural marriage was in 1835-1836. Later, Smith introduced the practice to other members of the church when Mormons moved to Nauvoo in the 1840s.

Critics View &
Factual Responses

Does Book of Mormon contradict itself by stating that the Lord’s standard for marriage is monogamy, while simultaneously authorizing polygamy?

The topic of polygamy is addressed in the Book of Mormon. Mormons believe that Joseph Smith received an ancient record of the people from the Americas...
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Did Joseph Smith introduce polygamy to prey on young women?

Joseph Smith was reluctant to practice polygamy. The historical record confirms this in various accounts. These accounts say that an angel came to Joseph at least three times from 1834 to 1842 and told Smith to practice polygamy...
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Joseph Smith’s wives were tricked or forced to marry Joseph Smith as polygamous wives.

Many of Joseph Smith’s plural wives were skeptical of the practice of polygamy when Smith approached them about the practice. However...
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Did Joseph Smith have sexual relationships with his young wives?

While Joseph Smith was alive, his practice of Joseph Smith’s polygamy was not widely discussed. However, in Salt Lake City, during a court case known as the “Temple Lot Case,” many women testified of their marriages to Smith...
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Did Joseph Smith send men away on missions to secretly marry their wives while they were gone?

There is no evidence to suggest that Joseph Smith sent men on missions so he could marry their wives. To answer this charge, the first question that has to be answered is...
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Were all of Joseph Smith’s polygamous marriages the same?

A Joseph Smith Polygamy Timeline shows that like many other experiences Smith had, Smith’s understanding and practice of polygamy evolved as Smith grew and learned from the Lord...
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Did some of Joseph Smith’s wives who left the church after his death accuse him of sexual impropriety?

Some of Joseph Smith’s wives left the Mormon Church. However, in an era where practicing your religion was dependent upon living near the congregation...
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Does the first wife have any say in whether a plural marriage takes place?

Doctrine and Covenants 132 contains Joseph Smith’s revelation on plural marriage. The revelation was originally addressed to Emma Smith. It is true that Joseph Smith fought polygamy...
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Joseph Smith married underage women.

Joseph Smith’s wives ages ranged from ages 14-58. According to law, the minimum age for a woman to be able to marry was 12 years old. However, the average marriage age for women in the 1800s was around 20-22 years old...
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Joseph Smith and Plural Marriage

In the early 1830s, Joseph Smith received a revelation that the Lord wanted Smith to renew the practice of polygamy. Although uncomfortable with the idea, many people recorded that Smith was commanded by an angel to initiate this practice...
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Polygamy in the Scriptures

Polygamy is discussed in the Bible as well as Mormon scripture, including the Book of Mormon and the Doctrine and Covenants. In the Bible, polygamy was practiced by the patriarchs, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob...
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Changes to Plural Marriage

Joseph Smith, how many wives did he have? Smith married around 30-40 plural wives. Most of Joseph Smith’s sealings did not include any sexual relations or cohabitation. Smith did not have children with any woman other than his wife Emma...
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Joseph Smith Polygamy Timeline

1827

January 18

Joseph Smith marries Emma Hale Smith in South Bainbridge, New York on January 18, 1827.

Biographies

Joseph Smith 1805-1844
Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Tragically, Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.
Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
Emma Hale Smith 1804-1879
Emma Hale Smith, born on July 10, 1804, in Harmony, Pennsylvania, married Joseph Smith in 1827 and played significant roles in the early Church as a scribe during the translations of the Book of Mormon and the Bible. Baptized into The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in 1830, she moved to Kirtland, Ohio, with the Saints. In 1835, Emma edited the first hymnbook of the Church. After enduring persecution in Missouri, she settled in Nauvoo, Illinois, and became the inaugural president of the Female Relief Society of Nauvoo. Following Joseph Smith's death, Emma remained in Nauvoo, marrying Lewis C. Bidamon and affiliating with the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, led by her son Joseph Smith III. Emma Smith passed away in Nauvoo on April 30, 1879.
Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/emma-hale-smith?lang=eng

    1830

    June

    In the summer of 1830, Joseph Smith began work on his translation of the Bible with Oliver Cowdery, Sidney Rigdon, and other scribes. It is speculated that this translation may have led to his knowledge that plural marriage would also be a part of the “restoration of all things”.

    Biographies

    Joseph Smith 1805-1844
    Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Tragically, Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.
    Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
    https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
    Sidney Rigdon 1793-1876
    Sidney Rigdon (1793-1876) was born in 1793 in Pennsylvania and married Phebe Brooks in 1820. A minister of the First Baptist Church of Pittsburgh, he converted to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on November 8, 1830, after Oliver Cowdery and Parley P. Pratt shared the Book of Mormon with him and Phebe. Rigdon served as a scribe for Joseph Smith's inspired Bible revision and was a member of the First Presidency of the early Church. Following Joseph Smith's death, Rigdon declined leadership, leading to his excommunication from the Church in 1844. Subsequently, he founded and led an independent Church organization until his passing in 1876.
    Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
    https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/sidney-rigdon?lang=eng
    Oliver Cowdery 1806-1850
    Oliver Cowdery was born on October 3, 1806. He served as a clerk, teacher, justice of the peace, lawyer, and newspaper editor during his lifetime. He acted as the principal scribe during the translation of the Book of Mormon in 1829. After, he received priesthood authority from angelic ministers. Cowdery was one of the Three Witnesses of the Book of Mormon plates and he played a crucial role in overseeing its publication. In April 1830, he led missionaries through Ohio to Missouri in 1830-1831. Later, he moved to Kirtland, Ohio, where he was elected justice of the peace in 1837. However, in 1838, he was excommunicated due to accusations against church leaders and rumors about Joseph Smith. In 1848, Cowdery was readmitted to the Church, but passed away in Richmond, Missouri on March 3, 1850.
    Source: Joseph Smith Papers
    https://www.josephsmithpapers.org/person/oliver-cowdery

      1831

      May 7

      Now canonized as part of Section 49 of the Doctrine and Covenants, Joseph received a revelation from Sidney Rigdon, Parley P. Pratt, and Leman Copley in response to a number of Shaker teachings, including the practice of celibacy. The revelation pronounces that “marriage is ordained of God unto man.”

      Biographies

      Sidney Rigdon 1793-1876
      Sidney Rigdon (1793-1876) was born in 1793 in Pennsylvania and married Phebe Brooks in 1820. A minister of the First Baptist Church of Pittsburgh, he converted to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on November 8, 1830, after Oliver Cowdery and Parley P. Pratt shared the Book of Mormon with him and Phebe. Rigdon served as a scribe for Joseph Smith's inspired Bible revision and was a member of the First Presidency of the early Church. Following Joseph Smith's death, Rigdon declined leadership, leading to his excommunication from the Church in 1844. Subsequently, he founded and led an independent Church organization until his passing in 1876.
      Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
      https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/sidney-rigdon?lang=eng
      Parley P. Pratt 1807-1847
      Parley P. Pratt was born on April 12, 1807 in Burlington, New York. He married Thankful Halsey in 1827 and was baptized by Oliver Cowdery on September 1, 1830. Over the next three decades, Pratt was a dedicated writer and missionary, serving multiple missions in the United States, Canada, England, and Chile. He played a significant role alongside Joseph Smith in Missouri and was briefly imprisoned with him. He was ordained a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles in 1835 and migrated with the Saints to Utah in 1847. While serving a mission in Arkansas, he was murdered outside the small town of Van Buren.
      Source: Church of Jesus Christ
      https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/doctrine-and-covenants-historical-resources/people/bio-parley-p-pratt?lang=eng

        Circa 1831

        Plural marriage participants, including two of Joseph’s wives, Helen Mar Kimball and Lucy Walker, claim that Joseph Smith learned about plural marriage in 1831, but did not teach it then.

        Biographies

        Joseph Smith 1805-1844
        Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Tragically, Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.
        Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
        https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
        Helen Mar Kimball 1828-1896
        Helen Mar Kimball was born in 1828 in Mendon, New York. Helen was the daughter of Heber C. Kimball, prominent LDS figure and one of the first members of the quorum of the twelve apostles. Helen was baptized at the age of eight in Kirtland, Ohio and later moved with her family to Missouri and Nauvoo. After discussion with her father, Helen was presented with the idea of becoming one of Joseph's plural wives at the age of fourteen. At first hesitant and against the idea, Helen later agreed to be sealed to Joseph in 1843. Following Joseph's death in 1844, Helen courted and married Horace Whitney in 1846. Helen and Horace migrated with LDS saints across the plains to Utah, she lived past six of her eleven children. Helen passed away in 1896, a lifelong and faithful member of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints.
        Source: Joseph Smith's Polygamy
        https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/helen-mar-kimball/
        Lucy Walker 1826-1910
        Lucy Walker Kimball was born in Peacham, Vermont, before relocating to Ogdensburg, New York in 1834, where she was baptized into the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in 1835; she witnessed the Hawn’s Mill attack in Missouri and later settled in Quincy, Illinois, and then Nauvoo by 1841. Lucy became a plural wife to Joseph Smith in May 1843 and later married Heber C. Kimball; she journeyed to Winter Quarters, migrated to the Salt Lake Valley in 1848, and eventually settled in Provo, Utah Territory, in 1868 before returning to Salt Lake City where she passed away.
        Source: The Joseph Smith Papers
        https://www.josephsmithpapers.org/person/lucy-walker-kimball

          1832

          March 24

          Joseph Smith and Sidney Rigdon were dragged from their homes in Hiram, Ohio, and tarred and feathered by a mob. Decades later, an anti-Mormon would allege that the persecution was in retaliation for Smith’s “intimate” relationship with a young woman named Marinda Nancy Johnson. He provided no source for this, and most historians give it little credence. Marinda would be sealed to Joseph as a plural wife a little over a decade later.

          Biographies

          Joseph Smith 1805-1844
          Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Tragically, Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.
          Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
          https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
          Sidney Rigdon 1793-1876
          Sidney Rigdon (1793-1876) was born in 1793 in Pennsylvania and married Phebe Brooks in 1820. A minister of the First Baptist Church of Pittsburgh, he converted to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on November 8, 1830, after Oliver Cowdery and Parley P. Pratt shared the Book of Mormon with him and Phebe. Rigdon served as a scribe for Joseph Smith's inspired Bible revision and was a member of the First Presidency of the early Church. Following Joseph Smith's death, Rigdon declined leadership, leading to his excommunication from the Church in 1844. Subsequently, he founded and led an independent Church organization until his passing in 1876.
          Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
          https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/sidney-rigdon?lang=eng

            1834-1842

            According to accounts from a number of close associates, an angel appeared to Joseph Smith three times between 1834 and 1842, each time commanding him to begin the practice of plural marriage. During the third such appearance, the angel appeared with a drawn sword and threatened Joseph with destruction if he disobeyed the Lord’s commandment and refused to move forward.

            Biographies

            Joseph Smith 1805-1844
            Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Tragically, Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.
            Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
            https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng

              Circa 1835-1836

              Joseph Smith is believed to have married his first plural wife, Fanny Alger, sometime around this period. According to later accounts, he obtained her and her parent's consent prior to marriage. While there are no firsthand accounts of the marriage, Eliza R. Snow, who was well-acquainted with Fanny at the time, would later list Fanny among Joseph’s plural wives.

              Biographies

              Joseph Smith 1805-1844
              Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Tragically, Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.
              Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
              https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
              Eliza R. Snow 1804-1887
              Born on January 21, 1804, Eliza Roxcy Snow was the second of seven children in the Snow family. Eliza initially met Joseph Smith in 1831, but did not convert to Mormonism until 1835 and soon after moved to Kirtland, Ohio from Massachusetts. As a school teacher, Eliza lived with the Smith family in Kirtland and taught their children. In 1842, Emma Smith organized the Relief Society in the church and as the acting president, called Eliza to serve as secretary. Later that year, Eliza was married to Joseph and lived with the Smith family continuing to teach the children for six months, she then moved to live with Jonathan Holmes. After the death of Joseph, Eliza married Brigham Young and traveled to the Salt Lake Valley where she served as the Relief Society president until her death in 1887.
              Source: Wives of Joseph Smith and Joseph Smith's Polygamy
              http://wivesofjosephsmith.org/15-ElizaRSnow.htm https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/eliza-r-snow/
              Fanny Alger 1816-1889
              Fanny Alger was born in 1816 to Samuel and Clarissa Alger, Fanny Alger joined the LDS church with her family in the 1830s. Fanny worked in Joseph Smith's household in KIrtland, Ohio and it was reported that Fanny Alger married Joseph Smith, becoming his first plural wife, there are very few sources about their union. Fanny left Ohio to go to Missouri with her parents. In 1836, Fanny married Solomon and together they had nine children. In 1874, she joined the Universalist church in Indiana. Fanny died at the home of her son in Indianapolis, Indiana, on November 29, 1889.
              Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
              https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/fanny-alger?lang=eng

                1836

                April 3

                Many ancient prophets appeared to Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery as they knelt in prayer in the Kirtland Temple. Among these was the Old Testament prophet Elijah, who bestowed the sealing keys upon them and fulfilled the ancient prophecy found in Malachi 4:5-6.

                Biographies

                Joseph Smith 1805-1844
                Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Tragically, Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.
                Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                Oliver Cowdery 1806-1850
                Oliver Cowdery was born on October 3, 1806. He served as a clerk, teacher, justice of the peace, lawyer, and newspaper editor during his lifetime. He acted as the principal scribe during the translation of the Book of Mormon in 1829. After, he received priesthood authority from angelic ministers. Cowdery was one of the Three Witnesses of the Book of Mormon plates and he played a crucial role in overseeing its publication. In April 1830, he led missionaries through Ohio to Missouri in 1830-1831. Later, he moved to Kirtland, Ohio, where he was elected justice of the peace in 1837. However, in 1838, he was excommunicated due to accusations against church leaders and rumors about Joseph Smith. In 1848, Cowdery was readmitted to the Church, but passed away in Richmond, Missouri on March 3, 1850.
                Source: Joseph Smith Papers
                https://www.josephsmithpapers.org/person/oliver-cowdery

                  1838

                  April 12

                  Oliver Cowdery was excommunicated by the High Council of the Church in Far West Missouri on April 12, 1838. There were nine charges made against him involving a number of matters, but one of these was “[f]or seeking to destroying the character of President Joseph Smith jr, by falsely insinuating that he was guilty of adultery &c.”

                  Biographies

                  Joseph Smith 1805-1844
                  Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Tragically, Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.
                  Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                  https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                  Oliver Cowdery 1806-1850
                  Oliver Cowdery was born on October 3, 1806. He served as a clerk, teacher, justice of the peace, lawyer, and newspaper editor during his lifetime. He acted as the principal scribe during the translation of the Book of Mormon in 1829. After, he received priesthood authority from angelic ministers. Cowdery was one of the Three Witnesses of the Book of Mormon plates and he played a crucial role in overseeing its publication. In April 1830, he led missionaries through Ohio to Missouri in 1830-1831. Later, he moved to Kirtland, Ohio, where he was elected justice of the peace in 1837. However, in 1838, he was excommunicated due to accusations against church leaders and rumors about Joseph Smith. In 1848, Cowdery was readmitted to the Church, but passed away in Richmond, Missouri on March 3, 1850.
                  Source: Joseph Smith Papers
                  https://www.josephsmithpapers.org/person/oliver-cowdery

                    1840

                    Joseph Smith privately teaches Elder Parley P. Pratt about the “heavenly order,” which allows spouses, under the proper conditions, to be together “for time and all eternity.” This also included the teaching that Pratt, and men similar to him, who had remarried following the death of his first wife, could be married or sealed to their wives for eternity.

                    Biographies

                    Joseph Smith 1805-1844
                    Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Tragically, Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.
                    Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                    https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                    Parley P. Pratt 1807-1847
                    Parley P. Pratt was born on April 12, 1807 in Burlington, New York. He married Thankful Halsey in 1827 and was baptized by Oliver Cowdery on September 1, 1830. Over the next three decades, Pratt was a dedicated writer and missionary, serving multiple missions in the United States, Canada, England, and Chile. He played a significant role alongside Joseph Smith in Missouri and was briefly imprisoned with him. He was ordained a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles in 1835 and migrated with the Saints to Utah in 1847. While serving a mission in Arkansas, he was murdered outside the small town of Van Buren.
                    Source: Church of Jesus Christ
                    https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/doctrine-and-covenants-historical-resources/people/bio-parley-p-pratt?lang=eng

                      1841

                      Members of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles including Brigham Young, are introduced to the concept of plural marriage for the first time.

                      Biographies

                      Brigham Young 1801-1877
                      Born in 1801 in Vermont, Brigham Young married his first wife, Miriam Works, in New York in 1824. Both were baptized in the Church in 1832, but shortly after, Miriam passed away from tuberculosis, and Brigham remarried Mary Ann Angell. He served as an Apostle in the Quorum of the Twelve and assumed leadership of the Church after Joseph Smith's death, becoming its prophet in 1847. During his ministry, he orchestrated the westward migration of the Saints and also held the position of Utah's first governor. A strong advocate for the practice of plural marriage, Brigham Young was sealed to over 50 women during his lifetime, including Eliza R. Snow and Zina D. Huntington Jacobs. Together with 16 of his wives, they had a total of 56 children. His leadership continued until his passing on August 29, 1877.
                      Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                      https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/brigham-young?lang=eng https://in.churchofjesuschrist.org/gospel-topics/prophet-brigham-young

                        1841

                        April 5

                        Joseph Smith is sealed to Louisa Beaman marking the first plural marriage in the Nauvoo-era. The ceremony was performed by her brother-in-law, Joseph Bates Noble at his home in Montrose, IA.

                        Biographies

                        Joseph Smith 1805-1844
                        Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Tragically, Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.
                        Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                        https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                        Louisa Beaman 1815-1850
                        Louisa Beman, born on February 7, 1815, in Livonia, New York, was the daughter of Alvah Beman and Sarah Burtts. She embarked on a journey of faith and migration, moving from Kirtland, Ohio, to Far West, Missouri, after April 1838, and then settling in Nauvoo, Hancock County, Illinois, by August 1840. Louisa's life took a significant turn when she was identified in some sources as a plural wife of Joseph Smith and sealed to him on April 5, 1841. Later, on September 19, 1844, she married Brigham Young in Nauvoo. Her journey continued as she moved to Winter Quarters in unorganized U.S. territory (later Omaha, Nebraska) during the summer of 1846. Ultimately, Louisa migrated to the Salt Lake Valley, arriving between September 20 and 24, 1848. She spent her remaining years in Salt Lake City, where she passed away on May 16, 1850.
                        Source: The Joseph Smith Papers
                        https://www.josephsmithpapers.org/person/louisa-beman-beaman-young

                          1841

                          December

                          Four months prior to Marinda Nancy Johnson’s sealing to Joseph Smith noted by Thomas Bullock, Joseph received a revelation for her with a possible mention of plural marriage.

                          Biographies

                          Joseph Smith 1805-1844
                          Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Tragically, Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.
                          Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                          https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng

                            1842

                            Circa April

                            Joseph Smith allegedly writes a letter known as the "Happiness Letter", presenting arguments to justify plural marriage. The letter is addressed to Nancy Rigdon, the wife of Sidney Rigdon, a close associate of Smith. The letter has been the subject of much debate, and there is no consensus on whether or not it is authentic. Some scholars believe the letter is genuine, while others believe it is a forgery. If the letter is genuine, it would provide important insights into Smith's views on plural marriage. However, the lack of an image of the letter makes it difficult to verify its authenticity.

                            Biographies

                            Joseph Smith 1805-1844
                            Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Tragically, Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.
                            Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                            https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                            Sidney Rigdon 1793-1876
                            Sidney Rigdon (1793-1876) was born in 1793 in Pennsylvania and married Phebe Brooks in 1820. A minister of the First Baptist Church of Pittsburgh, he converted to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on November 8, 1830, after Oliver Cowdery and Parley P. Pratt shared the Book of Mormon with him and Phebe. Rigdon served as a scribe for Joseph Smith's inspired Bible revision and was a member of the First Presidency of the early Church. Following Joseph Smith's death, Rigdon declined leadership, leading to his excommunication from the Church in 1844. Subsequently, he founded and led an independent Church organization until his passing in 1876.
                            Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                            https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/sidney-rigdon?lang=eng

                              1842

                              April-May

                              John C. Bennett, a member of the First Presidency, and Mayor of Nauvoo, was excommunicated from the Church for adultery. He then publishes an exposé - largely plagiarized from other publications - alleging that Joseph Smith practiced “spiritual wifery” in secret, including several of the names of Joseph’s plural wives. While Bennett may have heard whispers of polygamy while in Nauvoo, he was likely not introduced to the practice. The “spiritual wifery” was his own system.

                              Biographies

                              Joseph Smith 1805-1844
                              Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Tragically, Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.
                              Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                              https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                              John C. Bennett 1804-1867
                              John moved to Nauvoo, Illinois in 1840 where he became a member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. John was a practicing physician, a professor at Willoughby University in Ohio, and mayor of Nauvoo. With time, John began a series of practices including adultery, that removed him from his civil responsibilities and excommunication from the church in 1842. John passed away in Polk City, Iowa on August 5, 1867.
                              Source: BYU Religious Studies Center
                              https://rsc.byu.edu/prophets-apostles-last-dispensation/john-cook-bennett

                                1842

                                July 27

                                Joseph Smith was sealed to Sarah Ann Whitney, daughter of Newel K. Whitney and Elizabeth Whitney, with their permission. The sealing ceremony itself is performed by Bishop Newel K. Whitney, using the words outlined specifically in a revelation given for this purpose by Joseph Smith.

                                Biographies

                                Joseph Smith 1805-1844
                                Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Tragically, Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.
                                Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                Sarah Ann Whitney 1825-1873
                                Sarah Ann Whitney was born March 22, 1825, to Newel K. Whitney and Elizabeth Ann Smith in Kirtland, Ohio. The Whitney family became members of the church around 1831 and Newel was called to serve as a church bishop. After moving to Missouri, the family settled in Nauvoo, Illinois. Newel, Elizabeth, and Sarah were taught by the prophet Joseph Smith about the concept of plural marriage and were hesitant at first to allow Joseph to marry their daughter. Following prayer, time, and consideration Newel officiated the marriage of Joseph and Sarah with Elizabeth as a witness. After Joseph's death in 1844, Sarah married Heber C. Kimball in 1845. Heber and Sarah had seven children together, two of the children passed away as infants. Sarah passed away in 1873 in Salt Lake City, Utah at the age of forty eight.
                                Source: Wives of Joseph Smith
                                http://wivesofjosephsmith.org/16-SarahAnnWhitney.htm
                                Newel K. Whitney 1795-1850
                                Newel K. Whitney, born in Marlborough, Windham County, Vermont, wed Elizabeth Ann Smith on October 20, 1822, in Geauga County. He was baptized into the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints by missionaries in the unorganized Indian Territory in November 1830, where he went on to serve as the bishop and the first bishop of the church. In the fall of 1848, he migrated to Salt Lake Valley, and he passed away in Salt Lake City on September 23, 1850.
                                Source: The Joseph Smith Papers
                                https://www.josephsmithpapers.org/person/newel-kimball-whitney

                                  1842

                                  Summer

                                  According to an affidavit signed by Martha McBride Knight, she is married or sealed to Joseph Smith in the summer of 1842 in Nauvoo, Illinois by Heber C. Kimble.

                                  Biographies

                                  Joseph Smith 1805-1844
                                  Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Tragically, Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.
                                  Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                  https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                  Martha McBride Knight 1805-1901
                                  Born on March 17, 1805, Martha McBride was born in Chester township, New York. At the age twenty one, Martha married Vinson Knight in 1826. Eight years later, Vinson and Martha met the Prophet Joseph Smith and converted to the LDS church in 1834. After their move to Nauvoo, Vinson was called to serve as a bishop of one of the congregations and worked with Joseph Smith on church assignments. Vinson was taught by Joseph Smith about plural marriage and was then married to his second wife, Philinda Merrick. In 1842, Vinson fell ill and passed away leaving his two wives widowed. As a result, Martha married Joseph Smith in 1842 and there are few records about the details of their marriage. After the death of Joseph, Martha married Heber C. Kimball in 1844 and joined LDS members traveling west to Utah. She settled down in Utah, primarily living in the Ogden and Weber area and passed away in 1901 in Hooper, Utah
                                  Source: Wives of Joseph Smith
                                  http://www.wivesofjosephsmith.org/17-MarthaMcBrideKnight.htm

                                    1842

                                    October 1

                                    Nineteen members of the Relief Society publish a statement in The Times and Seasons (a monthly church publication), refuting the “secret wife system” alleged by John C. Bennett. The statement reads, “We give this certificate to the public to show that J.C. Bennett’s “secret wife system” is a disclose of his own make.”

                                    Biographies

                                    John C. Bennett 1804-1867
                                    John moved to Nauvoo, Illinois in 1840 where he became a member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. John was a practicing physician, a professor at Willoughby University in Ohio, and mayor of Nauvoo. With time, John began a series of practices including adultery, that removed him from his civil responsibilities and excommunication from the church in 1842. John passed away in Polk City, Iowa on August 5, 1867.
                                    Source: BYU Religious Studies Center
                                    https://rsc.byu.edu/prophets-apostles-last-dispensation/john-cook-bennett

                                      1842

                                      Winter

                                      Udney Hay Jacob, a non-Latter-day Saint writes a pamphlet titled ‘The Peacemaker,’ stating false accusations of Joseph’s view of marriage. The pamphlet also presented arguments in favor of polygamy as depicted in the Bible. While Joseph was uninvolved in its production, it was printed on a press “owned by Joseph Smith and operated by John Taylor” and Joseph was listed as the publisher.

                                      Image Source

                                      An Extract From 'The Peace Maker’ Manuscript

                                      Archive.org

                                      Biographies

                                      Joseph Smith 1805-1844
                                      Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Tragically, Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.
                                      Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                      https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                      John Taylor 1808-1887
                                      John Taylor, born on November 1, 1808, in Milnthorpe, Westmorland, England, alongside his wife, Leonora, were baptized in the Church in 1836. He assumed the role of President of the Church on October 10, 1880, and after seven years in this position, he passed away on July 25, 1887, in Kaysville, Utah.
                                      Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                      https://history.churchofjesuschrist.org/landing/prophets-of-the-restoration/john-taylor?lang=eng

                                        1843

                                        Between February and May

                                        Joseph Smith was married or sealed to Ruth D. Vose (later Ruth Vose Sayers) and Flora Ann Woodworth. Ruth D. Vose was married to Edward Sayers, who was not a member of the Church but was good friends with Joseph Smith. As Sayers did not have a strong belief in an afterlife, he requested that Ruth “be sealed to the Prophet for eternity, as he himself should only claim…her in this life.”

                                        Biographies

                                        Joseph Smith 1805-1844
                                        Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Tragically, Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.
                                        Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                        https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                        Ruth Vose Sayers 1808-1884
                                        Ruth Vose was born February 26, 1808 in Watertown, Massachusetts. After introduction to the church in 1832, Ruth was baptized by LDS Prophet Brigham Young in 1836 and married non-member Edward Sayers in 1841. Edward and Ruth then moved to Nauvoo, Illinois and lived on a farm. During this time, LDS prophet Joseph Smith was arrested and escaped jail. Through communication with friends, he stayed in hiding at Edward and Ruth's home for a week before moving to a new hiding spot. Six months later, Joseph and Ruth were married for eternity, like other wives of Joseph Smith who were already married, Edward and Ruth stayed married and lived together. Following Joseph's death, Ruth and Edward lived in Boston for five years before ultimately settling in Utah. After the death of her husband in 1861, Ruth passed away in 1884 in Salt Lake City, Utah.
                                        Source: Joseph Smith's Polygamy
                                        https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/ruth-vose/
                                        Flora Ann Woodworth 1826-1850
                                        Born in 1846 in New York, Flora Ann Woodworth was born to Lucien and Phebe Woodworth. After contacting the LDS missionaries, the Woodworth family was baptized in 1832 and migrated with early saints in Missouri and Illinois. Much of the records pertaining to Flora and Joseph's marriage are unclear. After Joseph's death, Flora became a widow at seventeen and married a non-member, Carlos Grove months after. In 1846, she traveled with the LDS saints to Salt Lake City, Utah ultimately passing away while on the journey in Iowa. She was presumed to be in her early twenties at the time of her passing.
                                        Source: Joseph Smith's Polygamy
                                        https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/flora-ann-woodworth/

                                          1843

                                          Circa May

                                          Joseph Smith marries Helen Mar Kimball, who was fourteen years old. According to her 1881 autobiography, this was arranged by her father, who “[had] a great desire to be connected with the Prophet, Joseph.” While there is still debate over whether this marriage was consummated, it seems unlikely based on evidence. Helen would later publish two booklets defending the principle of plural marriage.

                                          Biographies

                                          Joseph Smith 1805-1844
                                          Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Tragically, Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.
                                          Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                          https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                          Helen Mar Kimball 1828-1896
                                          Helen Mar Kimball was born in 1828 in Mendon, New York. Helen was the daughter of Heber C. Kimball, prominent LDS figure and one of the first members of the quorum of the twelve apostles. Helen was baptized at the age of eight in Kirtland, Ohio and later moved with her family to Missouri and Nauvoo. After discussion with her father, Helen was presented with the idea of becoming one of Joseph's plural wives at the age of fourteen. At first hesitant and against the idea, Helen later agreed to be sealed to Joseph in 1843. Following Joseph's death in 1844, Helen courted and married Horace Whitney in 1846. Helen and Horace migrated with LDS saints across the plains to Utah, she lived past six of her eleven children. Helen passed away in 1896, a lifelong and faithful member of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints.
                                          Source: Joseph Smith's Polygamy
                                          https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/helen-mar-kimball/

                                            1843

                                            May

                                            Emma Hale Smith facilitates Joseph’s marriage to Sarah Lawrence, Maria Lawrence, Eliza Partridge, and Emily Partridge. The Partridge sisters had already been sealed to Joseph that previous March.

                                            Biographies

                                            Emma Hale Smith 1804-1879
                                            Emma Hale Smith, born on July 10, 1804, in Harmony, Pennsylvania, married Joseph Smith in 1827 and played significant roles in the early Church as a scribe during the translations of the Book of Mormon and the Bible. Baptized into The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in 1830, she moved to Kirtland, Ohio, with the Saints. In 1835, Emma edited the first hymnbook of the Church. After enduring persecution in Missouri, she settled in Nauvoo, Illinois, and became the inaugural president of the Female Relief Society of Nauvoo. Following Joseph Smith's death, Emma remained in Nauvoo, marrying Lewis C. Bidamon and affiliating with the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, led by her son Joseph Smith III. Emma Smith passed away in Nauvoo on April 30, 1879.
                                            Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                            https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/emma-hale-smith?lang=eng

                                              1843

                                              May 28

                                              Joseph Smith is sealed to Emma Hale Smith in Joseph Smith’s red brick store in Nauvoo, Illinois.

                                              Biographies

                                              Joseph Smith 1805-1844
                                              Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Tragically, Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.
                                              Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                              https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                              Emma Hale Smith 1804-1879
                                              Emma Hale Smith, born on July 10, 1804, in Harmony, Pennsylvania, married Joseph Smith in 1827 and played significant roles in the early Church as a scribe during the translations of the Book of Mormon and the Bible. Baptized into The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in 1830, she moved to Kirtland, Ohio, with the Saints. In 1835, Emma edited the first hymnbook of the Church. After enduring persecution in Missouri, she settled in Nauvoo, Illinois, and became the inaugural president of the Female Relief Society of Nauvoo. Following Joseph Smith's death, Emma remained in Nauvoo, marrying Lewis C. Bidamon and affiliating with the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, led by her son Joseph Smith III. Emma Smith passed away in Nauvoo on April 30, 1879.
                                              Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                              https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/emma-hale-smith?lang=eng

                                                1843

                                                July 12

                                                In the hopes of helping to cool the tension between Joseph and Emma in regards to plural marriage, Hyrum Smith requested his brother to dictate a written revelation on the subject that the former hoped he could use to convince his sister-in-law of the truth and divine origin of the principle. Despite Hyrum’s optimism, Emma remained unconvinced, and destroyed the original several days later with the permission of Joseph, but not before a copy was made.

                                                Biographies

                                                Hyrum Smith 1800 - 1844
                                                On November 12, 1826, he married Jerusha Barden. In June 1829, he was baptized by his younger brother Joseph Smith Jr. in Seneca Lake. Hyrum’s ministry included being one of the Eight Witnesses to see the gold plates of the Book of Mormon and serving as the second counselor of the First Presidency of the Church while Joseph Smith was President. After his wife, Jerusha’s passing in 1837, Hyrum married Mary Fielding on December 24, 1837. On June 27, 1844, Hyrum was killed by a mob in Carthage jail along with his brother Joseph Smith Jr. 
                                                Source: BYU Library
                                                http://archives.lib.byu.edu/repositories/14/resources/7612

                                                  1843

                                                  November 2

                                                  On November 2, 1843, Joseph Smith was sealed to Fanny Young Murry, one of Brigham Young’s older sisters, who was widowed and fifty-six years old. Augusta Adams Young, one of Brigham Young’s wives, was a witness to the sealing.

                                                  Biographies

                                                  Joseph Smith 1805-1844
                                                  Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Tragically, Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.
                                                  Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                  https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                                  Fanny Young 1787-1859
                                                  Born in 1787 to John and Abigail Howe Young in Hopkinton, Massachusetts, Fanny Young, the elder sister of Brigham Young, married Roswell Murry in 1832, and although he declined Church involvement, she was baptized later that year; their journey took them to Kirtland, Ohio, Missouri, and Nauvoo, Illinois, where Roswell's passing in 1839 left Fanny widowed at the age of fifty-six. Joseph Smith and Fanny Young were sealed on November 2, 1843. Fanny Young Murry died in Utah in 1859 as a faithful member of the church.
                                                  Source: Joseph Smith's Polygamy
                                                  https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/fanny-young/
                                                  Brigham Young 1801-1877
                                                  Born in 1801 in Vermont, Brigham Young married his first wife, Miriam Works, in New York in 1824. Both were baptized in the Church in 1832, but shortly after, Miriam passed away from tuberculosis, and Brigham remarried Mary Ann Angell. He served as an Apostle in the Quorum of the Twelve and assumed leadership of the Church after Joseph Smith's death, becoming its prophet in 1847. During his ministry, he orchestrated the westward migration of the Saints and also held the position of Utah's first governor. A strong advocate for the practice of plural marriage, Brigham Young was sealed to over 50 women during his lifetime, including Eliza R. Snow and Zina D. Huntington Jacobs. Together with 16 of his wives, they had a total of 56 children. His leadership continued until his passing on August 29, 1877.
                                                  Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                  https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/brigham-young?lang=eng https://in.churchofjesuschrist.org/gospel-topics/prophet-brigham-young

                                                    1844

                                                    June 7

                                                    On June 7, 1844, the Nauvoo Expositor, a newspaper, established by critics and dissident members of the Church, attacked a number of Church doctrines and teachings, including the practice of plural marriage. They also advocated for the revocation of the Nauvoo Charter, which offered protection and legal recourse for the Saints against persecution. Following the newspaper’s publication, the Nauvoo City Council would gather on June 8 and June 10, 1844, to determine a course of action.

                                                      1844

                                                      June 27

                                                      Brothers Joseph Smith and Hyrum Smith are martyred in the town jail of Carthage, Illinois by a mob that had broken into the jail.

                                                      Biographies

                                                      Joseph Smith 1805-1844
                                                      Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Tragically, Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.
                                                      Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                      https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                                      Hyrum Smith 1800 - 1844
                                                      On November 12, 1826, he married Jerusha Barden. In June 1829, he was baptized by his younger brother Joseph Smith Jr. in Seneca Lake. Hyrum’s ministry included being one of the Eight Witnesses to see the gold plates of the Book of Mormon and serving as the second counselor of the First Presidency of the Church while Joseph Smith was President. After his wife, Jerusha’s passing in 1837, Hyrum married Mary Fielding on December 24, 1837. On June 27, 1844, Hyrum was killed by a mob in Carthage jail along with his brother Joseph Smith Jr. 
                                                      Source: BYU Library
                                                      http://archives.lib.byu.edu/repositories/14/resources/7612

                                                        Joseph Smith Polygamy Timeline - Joseph Smith Wives Ages - Emma Hale Smith  Joseph Smith How Many Wives - Joseph Smith Polygamy TimelineJoseph Smith Polygamy Timeline - Joseph Smith Polygamy - Doctrine and Covenants - Josep Smith How Many WivesJoseph Smith Polygamy - Joseph Smith Fought Polygamy - Joseph Smith tarred and feathered by a mob in Hiram, OhioJoseph Smith Polygamy - Joseph Smith How Many Wives Joseph Smith Wives Ages Eliza R. Snow - Joseph Smith Polygamy Timeline Joseph Smith Wives Ages - Joseph Smith Polygamy TimelineJoseph Smith Polygamy - Joseph Smith Wives AgesJoseph Smith Polygamy - Joseph Smith Wives Ages - Joseph Smith How Many WivesJoseph Smith Fought Polygamy - Joseph Smith Wives AgesJoseph Smith Polygamy - Joseph Smith Wives Ages - Joseph Smith Fought PolygamyJoseph Smith Fought Polygamy - John C. Bennett - Joseph Smith Wives AgesJoseph Smith Wives Ages - Joseph Smith Polygamy Timeline - Sarah Ann WhitneyJoseph Smith Polygamy - The Peace Maker - Joseph Smith Fought Polygamy Joseph Smith Polygamy Timeline - Joseph Smith Wives Ages Helen Mar KimballJoseph Smith Polygamy Timeline - Joseph Smith Wives Ages Eliza Maria Partridge LymanJoseph Smith Polygamy - Joseph Smith How Many Wives Affidavits on Celestial MarriageJoseph Smith Polygamy Timeline - Nauvoo Expositor - Joseph Smith PolygamyJoseph Smith Fought Polygamy - Joseph Smith Polygamy
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                                                        1827

                                                        Joseph Smith Marries Emma Hale

                                                        Historical Context

                                                        What Critics Are Saying

                                                        Response to Critics View

                                                        Joseph Smith Joseph Smith cancel 1805-1844 Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Tragically, Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.

                                                        Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                        https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                                        marries Emma Hale Smith Emma Hale Smith cancel 1804-1879 Emma Hale Smith, born on July 10, 1804, in Harmony, Pennsylvania, married Joseph Smith in 1827 and played significant roles in the early Church as a scribe during the translations of the Book of Mormon and the Bible. Baptized into The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in 1830, she moved to Kirtland, Ohio, with the Saints. In 1835, Emma edited the first hymnbook of the Church. After enduring persecution in Missouri, she settled in Nauvoo, Illinois, and became the inaugural president of the Female Relief Society of Nauvoo. Following Joseph Smith's death, Emma remained in Nauvoo, marrying Lewis C. Bidamon and affiliating with the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, led by her son Joseph Smith III. Emma Smith passed away in Nauvoo on April 30, 1879.

                                                        Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                        https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/emma-hale-smith?lang=eng
                                                        in South Bainbridge, New York on January 18, 1827. info Information Sources: cancel https://history.churchofjesuschrist.org/content/joseph-and-emma?lang=eng Image Source: Emma Hale Smith The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

                                                          1830

                                                          Joseph Smith Begins His Translation of the Bible

                                                          Historical Context

                                                          What Critics Are Saying

                                                          Response to Critics View

                                                          In the summer of 1830, Joseph Smith Joseph Smith cancel 1805-1844 Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Tragically, Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.

                                                          Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                          https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                                          began work on his translation of the Bible with Oliver Cowdery Oliver Cowdery cancel 1806-1850 Oliver Cowdery was born on October 3, 1806. He served as a clerk, teacher, justice of the peace, lawyer, and newspaper editor during his lifetime. He acted as the principal scribe during the translation of the Book of Mormon in 1829. After, he received priesthood authority from angelic ministers. Cowdery was one of the Three Witnesses of the Book of Mormon plates and he played a crucial role in overseeing its publication. In April 1830, he led missionaries through Ohio to Missouri in 1830-1831. Later, he moved to Kirtland, Ohio, where he was elected justice of the peace in 1837. However, in 1838, he was excommunicated due to accusations against church leaders and rumors about Joseph Smith. In 1848, Cowdery was readmitted to the Church, but passed away in Richmond, Missouri on March 3, 1850.

                                                          Source: Joseph Smith Papers
                                                          https://www.josephsmithpapers.org/person/oliver-cowdery
                                                          , Sidney Rigdon Sidney Rigdon cancel 1793-1876 Sidney Rigdon (1793-1876) was born in 1793 in Pennsylvania and married Phebe Brooks in 1820. A minister of the First Baptist Church of Pittsburgh, he converted to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on November 8, 1830, after Oliver Cowdery and Parley P. Pratt Parley P. Pratt cancel 1807-1847 Parley P. Pratt was born on April 12, 1807 in Burlington, New York. He married Thankful Halsey in 1827 and was baptized by Oliver Cowdery on September 1, 1830. Over the next three decades, Pratt was a dedicated writer and missionary, serving multiple missions in the United States, Canada, England, and Chile. He played a significant role alongside Joseph Smith in Missouri and was briefly imprisoned with him. He was ordained a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles in 1835 and migrated with the Saints to Utah in 1847. While serving a mission in Arkansas, he was murdered outside the small town of Van Buren.

                                                          Source: Church of Jesus Christ
                                                          https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/doctrine-and-covenants-historical-resources/people/bio-parley-p-pratt?lang=eng
                                                          shared the Book of Mormon with him and Phebe. Rigdon served as a scribe for Joseph Smith's inspired Bible revision and was a member of the First Presidency of the early Church. Following Joseph Smith's death, Rigdon declined leadership, leading to his excommunication from the Church in 1844. Subsequently, he founded and led an independent Church organization until his passing in 1876.


                                                          Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                          https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/sidney-rigdon?lang=eng
                                                          , and other scribes. It is speculated that this translation may have led to his knowledge that plural marriage would also be a part of the “restoration of all things”. info Information Sources: cancel https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-translation-of-the-bible?lang=eng https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/manual/doctrine-and-covenants-and-church-history-seminary-teacher-manual-2014/section-6/lesson-140-doctrine-and-covenants-132-1-2-34-66?lang=eng https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/manual/latter-day-saint-history-1815-1846-teacher-material/lesson-21?lang=eng Image Source: Joseph Smith and Sidney Rigdon working on the translation of the Bible The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

                                                            1831

                                                            Joseph Smith Learns of the Principles of Marriage

                                                            Historical Context

                                                            What Critics Are Saying

                                                            Response to Critics View

                                                            Now canonized as part of Section 49 of the Doctrine and Covenants, Joseph received a revelation from Sidney Rigdon Sidney Rigdon cancel 1793-1876 Sidney Rigdon (1793-1876) was born in 1793 in Pennsylvania and married Phebe Brooks in 1820. A minister of the First Baptist Church of Pittsburgh, he converted to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on November 8, 1830, after Oliver Cowdery Oliver Cowdery cancel 1806-1850 Oliver Cowdery was born on October 3, 1806. He served as a clerk, teacher, justice of the peace, lawyer, and newspaper editor during his lifetime. He acted as the principal scribe during the translation of the Book of Mormon in 1829. After, he received priesthood authority from angelic ministers. Cowdery was one of the Three Witnesses of the Book of Mormon plates and he played a crucial role in overseeing its publication. In April 1830, he led missionaries through Ohio to Missouri in 1830-1831. Later, he moved to Kirtland, Ohio, where he was elected justice of the peace in 1837. However, in 1838, he was excommunicated due to accusations against church leaders and rumors about Joseph Smith. In 1848, Cowdery was readmitted to the Church, but passed away in Richmond, Missouri on March 3, 1850.

                                                            Source: Joseph Smith Papers
                                                            https://www.josephsmithpapers.org/person/oliver-cowdery
                                                            and Parley P. Pratt Parley P. Pratt cancel 1807-1847 Parley P. Pratt was born on April 12, 1807 in Burlington, New York. He married Thankful Halsey in 1827 and was baptized by Oliver Cowdery on September 1, 1830. Over the next three decades, Pratt was a dedicated writer and missionary, serving multiple missions in the United States, Canada, England, and Chile. He played a significant role alongside Joseph Smith in Missouri and was briefly imprisoned with him. He was ordained a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles in 1835 and migrated with the Saints to Utah in 1847. While serving a mission in Arkansas, he was murdered outside the small town of Van Buren.

                                                            Source: Church of Jesus Christ
                                                            https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/doctrine-and-covenants-historical-resources/people/bio-parley-p-pratt?lang=eng
                                                            shared the Book of Mormon with him and Phebe. Rigdon served as a scribe for Joseph Smith's inspired Bible revision and was a member of the First Presidency of the early Church. Following Joseph Smith's death, Rigdon declined leadership, leading to his excommunication from the Church in 1844. Subsequently, he founded and led an independent Church organization until his passing in 1876.


                                                            Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                            https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/sidney-rigdon?lang=eng
                                                            , Parley P. Pratt, and Leman Copley in response to a number of Shaker teachings, including the practice of celibacy. The revelation pronounces that “marriage is ordained of God unto man.” info Information Sources: cancel https://site.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/scriptures/dc-testament/dc/49?lang=eng https://doctrineandcovenantscentral.org/historical-context/dc-49 https://site.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/manual/revelations-in-context/leman-copley-and-the-shakers?lang=eng

                                                              Circa 1831

                                                              Joseph Smith Learns About Plural Marriage

                                                              Historical Context

                                                              What Critics Are Saying

                                                              Response to Critics View

                                                              Plural marriage participants, including two of Joseph’s wives, Helen Mar Kimball Helen Mar Kimball cancel 1828-1896 Helen Mar Kimball was born in 1828 in Mendon, New York. Helen was the daughter of Heber C. Kimball Heber C. Kimball cancel 1801-1868 Heber Chase Kimball, born on June 14, 1801, in Sheldon, Vermont, and was baptized in April 1832. On February 14, 1835, he was ordained an Apostle. During 1837 to 1838, Heber embarked on an eleven-month mission to England, later returning and moving to Missouri with his family. In 1839, he embarked on a second mission to England, concluding in 1841. A pioneer of the westward migration, Heber was part of the Vanguard Pioneer Company that departed the City Beautiful on February 17, 1846. Heber passed away in Salt Lake City in 1868.

                                                              Source: BYU Religious Studies Center
                                                              https://rsc.byu.edu/vol-3-no-2-2002/heber-c-kimball-man-faith-integrity https://rsc.byu.edu/prophets-apostles-last-dispensation/heber-chase-kimball
                                                              , prominent LDS figure and one of the first members of the quorum of the twelve apostles. Helen was baptized at the age of eight in Kirtland, Ohio and later moved with her family to Missouri and Nauvoo. After discussion with her father, Helen was presented with the idea of becoming one of Joseph's plural wives at the age of fourteen. At first hesitant and against the idea, Helen later agreed to be sealed to Joseph in 1843. Following Joseph's death in 1844, Helen courted and married Horace Whitney in 1846. Helen and Horace migrated with LDS saints across the plains to Utah, she lived past six of her eleven children. Helen passed away in 1896, a lifelong and faithful member of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints.


                                                              Source: Joseph Smith's Polygamy
                                                              https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/helen-mar-kimball/
                                                              and Lucy Walker Lucy Walker cancel 1826-1910 Lucy Walker Kimball was born in Peacham, Vermont, before relocating to Ogdensburg, New York in 1834, where she was baptized into the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in 1835; she witnessed the Hawn’s Mill attack in Missouri and later settled in Quincy, Illinois, and then Nauvoo by 1841. Lucy became a plural wife to Joseph Smith in May 1843 and later married Heber C. Kimball; she journeyed to Winter Quarters, migrated to the Salt Lake Valley in 1848, and eventually settled in Provo, Utah Territory, in 1868 before returning to Salt Lake City where she passed away.

                                                              Source: The Joseph Smith Papers
                                                              https://www.josephsmithpapers.org/person/lucy-walker-kimball
                                                              , claim that Joseph Smith Joseph Smith cancel 1805-1844 Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Tragically, Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.

                                                              Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                              https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                                              learned about plural marriage in 1831, but did not teach it then. info Information Sources: cancel https://rsc.byu.edu/days-never-be-forgotten-oliver-cowdery/guilty-such-folly-accusations-adultery-polygamy-against-oliver-cowdery Image Source: Section 49 of the Doctrine and Covenants The Joseph Smith Papers

                                                                1832

                                                                Joseph Smith and Sidney Rigdon are Persecuted in Ohio

                                                                Historical Context

                                                                What Critics Are Saying

                                                                Response to Critics View

                                                                Joseph Smith Joseph Smith cancel 1805-1844 Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Tragically, Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.

                                                                Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                                                and Sidney Rigdon Sidney Rigdon cancel 1793-1876 Sidney Rigdon (1793-1876) was born in 1793 in Pennsylvania and married Phebe Brooks in 1820. A minister of the First Baptist Church of Pittsburgh, he converted to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on November 8, 1830, after Oliver Cowdery Oliver Cowdery cancel 1806-1850 Oliver Cowdery was born on October 3, 1806. He served as a clerk, teacher, justice of the peace, lawyer, and newspaper editor during his lifetime. He acted as the principal scribe during the translation of the Book of Mormon in 1829. After, he received priesthood authority from angelic ministers. Cowdery was one of the Three Witnesses of the Book of Mormon plates and he played a crucial role in overseeing its publication. In April 1830, he led missionaries through Ohio to Missouri in 1830-1831. Later, he moved to Kirtland, Ohio, where he was elected justice of the peace in 1837. However, in 1838, he was excommunicated due to accusations against church leaders and rumors about Joseph Smith. In 1848, Cowdery was readmitted to the Church, but passed away in Richmond, Missouri on March 3, 1850.

                                                                Source: Joseph Smith Papers
                                                                https://www.josephsmithpapers.org/person/oliver-cowdery
                                                                and Parley P. Pratt Parley P. Pratt cancel 1807-1847 Parley P. Pratt was born on April 12, 1807 in Burlington, New York. He married Thankful Halsey in 1827 and was baptized by Oliver Cowdery on September 1, 1830. Over the next three decades, Pratt was a dedicated writer and missionary, serving multiple missions in the United States, Canada, England, and Chile. He played a significant role alongside Joseph Smith in Missouri and was briefly imprisoned with him. He was ordained a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles in 1835 and migrated with the Saints to Utah in 1847. While serving a mission in Arkansas, he was murdered outside the small town of Van Buren.

                                                                Source: Church of Jesus Christ
                                                                https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/doctrine-and-covenants-historical-resources/people/bio-parley-p-pratt?lang=eng
                                                                shared the Book of Mormon with him and Phebe. Rigdon served as a scribe for Joseph Smith's inspired Bible revision and was a member of the First Presidency of the early Church. Following Joseph Smith's death, Rigdon declined leadership, leading to his excommunication from the Church in 1844. Subsequently, he founded and led an independent Church organization until his passing in 1876.


                                                                Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/sidney-rigdon?lang=eng
                                                                were dragged from their homes in Hiram, Ohio, and tarred and feathered by a mob. Decades later, an anti-Mormon would allege that the persecution was in retaliation for Smith’s “intimate” relationship with a young woman named Marinda Nancy Johnson. He provided no source for this, and most historians give it little credence. Marinda would be sealed to Joseph as a plural wife a little over a decade later. info Information Sources: cancel https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/manual/teachings-joseph-smith/chapter-19?lang=eng https://gregkofford.com/collections/brian-c-hales https://catalog.churchofjesuschrist.org/assets/d72d0276-9e23-4bcc-a452-b6cd4358ea32/0/0 Image Source: Joseph Smith tarred and feathered by a mob in Hiram, Ohio The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

                                                                  1834-1842

                                                                  An Angel Appears to Joseph Smith, Commanding Him to Follow the Practice of Plural Marriage

                                                                  Historical Context

                                                                  What Critics Are Saying

                                                                  Response to Critics View

                                                                  According to accounts from a number of close associates, an angel appeared to Joseph Smith Joseph Smith cancel 1805-1844 Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Tragically, Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.

                                                                  Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                  https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                                                  three times between 1834 and 1842, each time commanding him to begin the practice of plural marriage. During the third such appearance, the angel appeared with a drawn sword and threatened Joseph with destruction if he disobeyed the Lord’s commandment and refused to move forward. info Information Sources: cancel https://site.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/manual/gospel-topics-essays/plural-marriage-in-kirtland-and-nauvoo?lang=eng http://mormonhistoricsites.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/Encouraging-Joseph-Smith-to-Practice-Plural-Marriage-The-Accounts-of-the-Angel-with-a-Drawn-Sword.pdf Image Source: Joseph Smith The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

                                                                    Circa 1835-1836

                                                                    Joseph Smith Marries His First Plural Wife, Fanny Alger

                                                                    Historical Context

                                                                    What Critics Are Saying

                                                                    Response to Critics View

                                                                    Joseph Smith Joseph Smith cancel 1805-1844 Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Tragically, Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.

                                                                    Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                    https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                                                    is believed to have married his first plural wife, Fanny Alger Fanny Alger cancel 1816-1889 Fanny Alger was born in 1816 to Samuel and Clarissa Alger, Fanny Alger joined the LDS church with her family in the 1830s. Fanny worked in Joseph Smith's household in KIrtland, Ohio and it was reported that Fanny Alger married Joseph Smith, becoming his first plural wife, there are very few sources about their union. Fanny left Ohio to go to Missouri with her parents. In 1836, Fanny married Solomon and together they had nine children. In 1874, she joined the Universalist church in Indiana. Fanny died at the home of her son in Indianapolis, Indiana, on November 29, 1889.

                                                                    Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                    https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/fanny-alger?lang=eng
                                                                    , sometime around this period. According to later accounts, he obtained her and her parent's consent prior to marriage. While there are no firsthand accounts of the marriage, Eliza R. Snow Eliza R. Snow cancel 1804-1887 Born on January 21, 1804, Eliza Roxcy Snow was the second of seven children in the Snow family. Eliza initially met Joseph Smith in 1831, but did not convert to Mormonism until 1835 and soon after moved to Kirtland, Ohio from Massachusetts. As a school teacher, Eliza lived with the Smith family in Kirtland and taught their children. In 1842, Emma Smith organized the Relief Society in the church and as the acting president, called Eliza to serve as secretary. Later that year, Eliza was married to Joseph and lived with the Smith family continuing to teach the children for six months, she then moved to live with Jonathan Holmes. After the death of Joseph, Eliza married Brigham Young Brigham Young cancel 1801-1877 Born in 1801 in Vermont, Brigham Young married his first wife, Miriam Works, in New York in 1824. Both were baptized in the Church in 1832, but shortly after, Miriam passed away from tuberculosis, and Brigham remarried Mary Ann Angell. He served as an Apostle in the Quorum of the Twelve and assumed leadership of the Church after Joseph Smith's death, becoming its prophet in 1847. During his ministry, he orchestrated the westward migration of the Saints and also held the position of Utah's first governor. A strong advocate for the practice of plural marriage, Brigham Young was sealed to over 50 women during his lifetime, including Eliza R. Snow and Zina D. Huntington Jacobs. Together with 16 of his wives, they had a total of 56 children. His leadership continued until his passing on August 29, 1877.

                                                                    Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                    https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/brigham-young?lang=eng https://in.churchofjesuschrist.org/gospel-topics/prophet-brigham-young
                                                                    and traveled to the Salt Lake Valley where she served as the Relief Society president until her death in 1887.


                                                                    Source: Wives of Joseph Smith and Joseph Smith's Polygamy
                                                                    http://wivesofjosephsmith.org/15-ElizaRSnow.htm https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/eliza-r-snow/
                                                                    , who was well-acquainted with Fanny at the time, would later list Fanny among Joseph’s plural wives. info Information Sources: cancel https://site.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/manual/gospel-topics-essays/plural-marriage-in-kirtland-and-nauvoo?lang=eng https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/common-questions/fanny-alger/ Image Source: Eliza R. Snow The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

                                                                      1836

                                                                      The Prophet Elijah Appears to Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery

                                                                      Historical Context

                                                                      What Critics Are Saying

                                                                      Response to Critics View

                                                                      Many ancient prophets appeared to Joseph Smith Joseph Smith cancel 1805-1844 Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Tragically, Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.

                                                                      Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                      https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                                                      and Oliver Cowdery Oliver Cowdery cancel 1806-1850 Oliver Cowdery was born on October 3, 1806. He served as a clerk, teacher, justice of the peace, lawyer, and newspaper editor during his lifetime. He acted as the principal scribe during the translation of the Book of Mormon in 1829. After, he received priesthood authority from angelic ministers. Cowdery was one of the Three Witnesses of the Book of Mormon plates and he played a crucial role in overseeing its publication. In April 1830, he led missionaries through Ohio to Missouri in 1830-1831. Later, he moved to Kirtland, Ohio, where he was elected justice of the peace in 1837. However, in 1838, he was excommunicated due to accusations against church leaders and rumors about Joseph Smith. In 1848, Cowdery was readmitted to the Church, but passed away in Richmond, Missouri on March 3, 1850.

                                                                      Source: Joseph Smith Papers
                                                                      https://www.josephsmithpapers.org/person/oliver-cowdery
                                                                      as they knelt in prayer in the Kirtland Temple. Among these was the Old Testament prophet Elijah, who bestowed the sealing keys upon them and fulfilled the ancient prophecy found in Malachi 4:5-6. info Information Sources: cancel https://site.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/manual/gospel-topics-essays/plural-marriage-in-kirtland-and-nauvoo?lang=eng https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/new-era/2008/05/line-upon-line-malachi-4-5-6?lang=eng https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/scriptures/dc-testament?lang=eng Image Source: The Prophet Elijah Appears to Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

                                                                        1838

                                                                        Oliver Cowdery is Excommunicated from the Church

                                                                        Historical Context

                                                                        What Critics Are Saying

                                                                        Response to Critics View

                                                                        Oliver Cowdery Oliver Cowdery cancel 1806-1850 Oliver Cowdery was born on October 3, 1806. He served as a clerk, teacher, justice of the peace, lawyer, and newspaper editor during his lifetime. He acted as the principal scribe during the translation of the Book of Mormon in 1829. After, he received priesthood authority from angelic ministers. Cowdery was one of the Three Witnesses of the Book of Mormon plates and he played a crucial role in overseeing its publication. In April 1830, he led missionaries through Ohio to Missouri in 1830-1831. Later, he moved to Kirtland, Ohio, where he was elected justice of the peace in 1837. However, in 1838, he was excommunicated due to accusations against church leaders and rumors about Joseph Smith. In 1848, Cowdery was readmitted to the Church, but passed away in Richmond, Missouri on March 3, 1850.

                                                                        Source: Joseph Smith Papers
                                                                        https://www.josephsmithpapers.org/person/oliver-cowdery
                                                                        was excommunicated by the High Council of the Church in Far West Missouri on April 12, 1838. There were nine charges made against him involving a number of matters, but one of these was “[f]or seeking to destroying the character of President Joseph Smith Joseph Smith cancel 1805-1844 Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Tragically, Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.

                                                                        Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                        https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                                                        jr, by falsely insinuating that he was guilty of adultery &c.” info Information Sources: cancel https://knowhy.bookofmormoncentral.org/knowhy/why-was-oliver-cowdery-excommunicated-from-the-church Image Source: Oliver Cowdery The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

                                                                          1840

                                                                          Joseph Smith Teaches Parley P. Pratt About Eternal Marriage

                                                                          Historical Context

                                                                          What Critics Are Saying

                                                                          Response to Critics View

                                                                          Joseph Smith Joseph Smith cancel 1805-1844 Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Tragically, Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.

                                                                          Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                          https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                                                          privately teaches Elder Parley P. Pratt Parley P. Pratt cancel 1807-1847 Parley P. Pratt was born on April 12, 1807 in Burlington, New York. He married Thankful Halsey in 1827 and was baptized by Oliver Cowdery Oliver Cowdery cancel 1806-1850 Oliver Cowdery was born on October 3, 1806. He served as a clerk, teacher, justice of the peace, lawyer, and newspaper editor during his lifetime. He acted as the principal scribe during the translation of the Book of Mormon in 1829. After, he received priesthood authority from angelic ministers. Cowdery was one of the Three Witnesses of the Book of Mormon plates and he played a crucial role in overseeing its publication. In April 1830, he led missionaries through Ohio to Missouri in 1830-1831. Later, he moved to Kirtland, Ohio, where he was elected justice of the peace in 1837. However, in 1838, he was excommunicated due to accusations against church leaders and rumors about Joseph Smith. In 1848, Cowdery was readmitted to the Church, but passed away in Richmond, Missouri on March 3, 1850.

                                                                          Source: Joseph Smith Papers
                                                                          https://www.josephsmithpapers.org/person/oliver-cowdery
                                                                          on September 1, 1830. Over the next three decades, Pratt was a dedicated writer and missionary, serving multiple missions in the United States, Canada, England, and Chile. He played a significant role alongside Joseph Smith in Missouri and was briefly imprisoned with him. He was ordained a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles in 1835 and migrated with the Saints to Utah in 1847. While serving a mission in Arkansas, he was murdered outside the small town of Van Buren.


                                                                          Source: Church of Jesus Christ
                                                                          https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/doctrine-and-covenants-historical-resources/people/bio-parley-p-pratt?lang=eng
                                                                          about the “heavenly order,” which allows spouses, under the proper conditions, to be together “for time and all eternity.” This also included the teaching that Pratt, and men similar to him, who had remarried following the death of his first wife, could be married or sealed to their wives for eternity. info Information Sources: cancel https://contentdm.lib.byu.edu/digital/collection/NCMP1820-1846/id/17400/ https://catalog.churchofjesuschrist.org/record/0e53d608-5d7c-4f37-83d4-b6dd8fcdadf8/0?view=browse https://site.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/manual/gospel-topics-essays/plural-marriage-in-kirtland-and-nauvoo?lang=eng Image Source: Parley P. Pratt The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

                                                                            1841

                                                                            Joseph Smith Introduces the Idea of Plural Marriage to Brigham Young and Others

                                                                            Historical Context

                                                                            What Critics Are Saying

                                                                            Response to Critics View

                                                                            Members of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles including Brigham Young Brigham Young cancel 1801-1877 Born in 1801 in Vermont, Brigham Young married his first wife, Miriam Works, in New York in 1824. Both were baptized in the Church in 1832, but shortly after, Miriam passed away from tuberculosis, and Brigham remarried Mary Ann Angell. He served as an Apostle in the Quorum of the Twelve and assumed leadership of the Church after Joseph Smith's death, becoming its prophet in 1847. During his ministry, he orchestrated the westward migration of the Saints and also held the position of Utah's first governor. A strong advocate for the practice of plural marriage, Brigham Young was sealed to over 50 women during his lifetime, including Eliza R. Snow and Zina D. Huntington Jacobs. Together with 16 of his wives, they had a total of 56 children. His leadership continued until his passing on August 29, 1877.

                                                                            Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                            https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/brigham-young?lang=eng https://in.churchofjesuschrist.org/gospel-topics/prophet-brigham-young
                                                                            , are introduced to the concept of plural marriage for the first time. info Information Sources: cancel https://contentdm.lib.byu.edu/digital/collection/JournalOfDiscourses3/id/6900/rec/19 https://byustudies.byu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/50.3CarruthStakerJohn-e0122590-8b59-4a46-945f-27d4df280e14.pdf Image Source: Joseph Smith Teaching The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

                                                                              1841

                                                                              The First Plural Marriage in Nauvoo, Illinois Occurs

                                                                              Historical Context

                                                                              What Critics Are Saying

                                                                              Response to Critics View

                                                                              Joseph Smith Joseph Smith cancel 1805-1844 Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Tragically, Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.

                                                                              Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                              https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                                                              is sealed to Louisa Beaman Louisa Beaman cancel 1815-1850 Louisa Beman, born on February 7, 1815, in Livonia, New York, was the daughter of Alvah Beman and Sarah Burtts. She embarked on a journey of faith and migration, moving from Kirtland, Ohio, to Far West, Missouri, after April 1838, and then settling in Nauvoo, Hancock County, Illinois, by August 1840. Louisa's life took a significant turn when she was identified in some sources as a plural wife of Joseph Smith and sealed to him on April 5, 1841. Later, on September 19, 1844, she married Brigham Young in Nauvoo. Her journey continued as she moved to Winter Quarters in unorganized U.S. territory (later Omaha, Nebraska) during the summer of 1846. Ultimately, Louisa migrated to the Salt Lake Valley, arriving between September 20 and 24, 1848. She spent her remaining years in Salt Lake City, where she passed away on May 16, 1850.

                                                                              Source: The Joseph Smith Papers
                                                                              https://www.josephsmithpapers.org/person/louisa-beman-beaman-young
                                                                              marking the first plural marriage in the Nauvoo-era. The ceremony was performed by her brother-in-law, Joseph Bates Noble at his home in Montrose, IA. info Information Sources: cancel https://site.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/manual/gospel-topics-essays/plural-marriage-in-kirtland-and-nauvoo?lang=eng https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/louisa-beaman/

                                                                                1841

                                                                                Joseph Smith Receives Revelation for Marinda Nancy Johnson Prior to Their Sealing

                                                                                Historical Context

                                                                                What Critics Are Saying

                                                                                Response to Critics View

                                                                                Four months prior to Marinda Nancy Johnson’s sealing to Joseph Smith Joseph Smith cancel 1805-1844 Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Tragically, Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.

                                                                                Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                                https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                                                                noted by Thomas Bullock, Joseph received a revelation for her with a possible mention of plural marriage. info Information Sources: cancel https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/marinda-nancy-johnson/ Image Source: Nancy Marinda Johnson Hyde Joseph Smith's Polygamy

                                                                                  1842

                                                                                  Joseph Smith Allegedly Writes the “Happiness Letter”

                                                                                  Historical Context

                                                                                  What Critics Are Saying

                                                                                  Response to Critics View

                                                                                  Joseph Smith Joseph Smith cancel 1805-1844 Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Tragically, Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.

                                                                                  Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                                  https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                                                                  allegedly writes a letter known as the "Happiness Letter", presenting arguments to justify plural marriage. The letter is addressed to Nancy Rigdon, the wife of Sidney Rigdon Sidney Rigdon cancel 1793-1876 Sidney Rigdon (1793-1876) was born in 1793 in Pennsylvania and married Phebe Brooks in 1820. A minister of the First Baptist Church of Pittsburgh, he converted to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on November 8, 1830, after Oliver Cowdery Oliver Cowdery cancel 1806-1850 Oliver Cowdery was born on October 3, 1806. He served as a clerk, teacher, justice of the peace, lawyer, and newspaper editor during his lifetime. He acted as the principal scribe during the translation of the Book of Mormon in 1829. After, he received priesthood authority from angelic ministers. Cowdery was one of the Three Witnesses of the Book of Mormon plates and he played a crucial role in overseeing its publication. In April 1830, he led missionaries through Ohio to Missouri in 1830-1831. Later, he moved to Kirtland, Ohio, where he was elected justice of the peace in 1837. However, in 1838, he was excommunicated due to accusations against church leaders and rumors about Joseph Smith. In 1848, Cowdery was readmitted to the Church, but passed away in Richmond, Missouri on March 3, 1850.

                                                                                  Source: Joseph Smith Papers
                                                                                  https://www.josephsmithpapers.org/person/oliver-cowdery
                                                                                  and Parley P. Pratt Parley P. Pratt cancel 1807-1847 Parley P. Pratt was born on April 12, 1807 in Burlington, New York. He married Thankful Halsey in 1827 and was baptized by Oliver Cowdery on September 1, 1830. Over the next three decades, Pratt was a dedicated writer and missionary, serving multiple missions in the United States, Canada, England, and Chile. He played a significant role alongside Joseph Smith in Missouri and was briefly imprisoned with him. He was ordained a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles in 1835 and migrated with the Saints to Utah in 1847. While serving a mission in Arkansas, he was murdered outside the small town of Van Buren.

                                                                                  Source: Church of Jesus Christ
                                                                                  https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/doctrine-and-covenants-historical-resources/people/bio-parley-p-pratt?lang=eng
                                                                                  shared the Book of Mormon with him and Phebe. Rigdon served as a scribe for Joseph Smith's inspired Bible revision and was a member of the First Presidency of the early Church. Following Joseph Smith's death, Rigdon declined leadership, leading to his excommunication from the Church in 1844. Subsequently, he founded and led an independent Church organization until his passing in 1876.


                                                                                  Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                                  https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/sidney-rigdon?lang=eng
                                                                                  , a close associate of Smith. The letter has been the subject of much debate, and there is no consensus on whether or not it is authentic. Some scholars believe the letter is genuine, while others believe it is a forgery. If the letter is genuine, it would provide important insights into Smith's views on plural marriage. However, the lack of an image of the letter makes it difficult to verify its authenticity. info Information Sources: cancel https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5406/jmormhist.42.3.0094

                                                                                    1842

                                                                                    John C. Bennett Published an Exposé Alleging Joseph Smith Secretly Practices “Spiritual Wifery”

                                                                                    Historical Context

                                                                                    What Critics Are Saying

                                                                                    Response to Critics View

                                                                                    John C. Bennett John C. Bennett cancel 1804-1867 John moved to Nauvoo, Illinois in 1840 where he became a member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. John was a practicing physician, a professor at Willoughby University in Ohio, and mayor of Nauvoo. With time, John began a series of practices including adultery, that removed him from his civil responsibilities and excommunication from the church in 1842. John passed away in Polk City, Iowa on August 5, 1867.

                                                                                    Source: BYU Religious Studies Center
                                                                                    https://rsc.byu.edu/prophets-apostles-last-dispensation/john-cook-bennett
                                                                                    , a member of the First Presidency, and Mayor of Nauvoo, was excommunicated from the Church for adultery. He then publishes an exposé - largely plagiarized from other publications - alleging that Joseph Smith Joseph Smith cancel 1805-1844 Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Tragically, Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.

                                                                                    Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                                    https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                                                                    practiced “spiritual wifery” in secret, including several of the names of Joseph’s plural wives. While Bennett may have heard whispers of polygamy while in Nauvoo, he was likely not introduced to the practice. The “spiritual wifery” was his own system. info Information Sources: cancel https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/john-c-bennett-and-spiritual-wifery/ https://rsc.byu.edu/prophets-apostles-last-dispensation/john-cook-bennett Image Source: John C. Bennett The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Church History Library

                                                                                      1842

                                                                                      Joseph Smith is Sealed to Sarah Ann Whitney

                                                                                      Historical Context

                                                                                      What Critics Are Saying

                                                                                      Response to Critics View

                                                                                      Joseph Smith Joseph Smith cancel 1805-1844 Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Tragically, Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.

                                                                                      Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                                      https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                                                                      was sealed to Sarah Ann Whitney Sarah Ann Whitney cancel 1825-1873 Sarah Ann Whitney was born March 22, 1825, to Newel K. Whitney Newel K. Whitney cancel 1795-1850 Newel K. Whitney, born in Marlborough, Windham County, Vermont, wed Elizabeth Ann Smith on October 20, 1822, in Geauga County. He was baptized into the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints by missionaries in the unorganized Indian Territory in November 1830, where he went on to serve as the bishop and the first bishop of the church. In the fall of 1848, he migrated to Salt Lake Valley, and he passed away in Salt Lake City on September 23, 1850.

                                                                                      Source: The Joseph Smith Papers
                                                                                      https://www.josephsmithpapers.org/person/newel-kimball-whitney
                                                                                      and Elizabeth Ann Smith in Kirtland, Ohio. The Whitney family became members of the church around 1831 and Newel was called to serve as a church bishop. After moving to Missouri, the family settled in Nauvoo, Illinois. Newel, Elizabeth, and Sarah were taught by the prophet Joseph Smith about the concept of plural marriage and were hesitant at first to allow Joseph to marry their daughter. Following prayer, time, and consideration Newel officiated the marriage of Joseph and Sarah with Elizabeth as a witness. After Joseph's death in 1844, Sarah married Heber C. Kimball Heber C. Kimball cancel 1801-1868 Heber Chase Kimball, born on June 14, 1801, in Sheldon, Vermont, and was baptized in April 1832. On February 14, 1835, he was ordained an Apostle. During 1837 to 1838, Heber embarked on an eleven-month mission to England, later returning and moving to Missouri with his family. In 1839, he embarked on a second mission to England, concluding in 1841. A pioneer of the westward migration, Heber was part of the Vanguard Pioneer Company that departed the City Beautiful on February 17, 1846. Heber passed away in Salt Lake City in 1868.

                                                                                      Source: BYU Religious Studies Center
                                                                                      https://rsc.byu.edu/vol-3-no-2-2002/heber-c-kimball-man-faith-integrity https://rsc.byu.edu/prophets-apostles-last-dispensation/heber-chase-kimball
                                                                                      in 1845. Heber and Sarah had seven children together, two of the children passed away as infants. Sarah passed away in 1873 in Salt Lake City, Utah at the age of forty eight.


                                                                                      Source: Wives of Joseph Smith
                                                                                      http://wivesofjosephsmith.org/16-SarahAnnWhitney.htm
                                                                                      , daughter of Newel K. Whitney and Elizabeth Whitney, with their permission. The sealing ceremony itself is performed by Bishop Newel K. Whitney, using the words outlined specifically in a revelation given for this purpose by Joseph Smith. info Information Sources: cancel https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/sarah-ann-whitney/ https://www.josephsmithpapers.org/paper-summary/revelation-27-july-1842/1 Image Source: Sarah Ann Whitney Joseph Smith's Polygamy

                                                                                        1842

                                                                                        Joseph Smith is Sealed to Martha McBride Knight

                                                                                        Historical Context

                                                                                        What Critics Are Saying

                                                                                        Response to Critics View

                                                                                        According to an affidavit signed by Martha McBride Knight Martha McBride Knight cancel 1805-1901 Born on March 17, 1805, Martha McBride was born in Chester township, New York. At the age twenty one, Martha married Vinson Knight in 1826. Eight years later, Vinson and Martha met the Prophet Joseph Smith and converted to the LDS church in 1834. After their move to Nauvoo, Vinson was called to serve as a bishop of one of the congregations and worked with Joseph Smith on church assignments. Vinson was taught by Joseph Smith about plural marriage and was then married to his second wife, Philinda Merrick. In 1842, Vinson fell ill and passed away leaving his two wives widowed. As a result, Martha married Joseph Smith in 1842 and there are few records about the details of their marriage. After the death of Joseph, Martha married Heber C. Kimball Heber C. Kimball cancel 1801-1868 Heber Chase Kimball, born on June 14, 1801, in Sheldon, Vermont, and was baptized in April 1832. On February 14, 1835, he was ordained an Apostle. During 1837 to 1838, Heber embarked on an eleven-month mission to England, later returning and moving to Missouri with his family. In 1839, he embarked on a second mission to England, concluding in 1841. A pioneer of the westward migration, Heber was part of the Vanguard Pioneer Company that departed the City Beautiful on February 17, 1846. Heber passed away in Salt Lake City in 1868.

                                                                                        Source: BYU Religious Studies Center
                                                                                        https://rsc.byu.edu/vol-3-no-2-2002/heber-c-kimball-man-faith-integrity https://rsc.byu.edu/prophets-apostles-last-dispensation/heber-chase-kimball
                                                                                        in 1844 and joined LDS members traveling west to Utah. She settled down in Utah, primarily living in the Ogden and Weber area and passed away in 1901 in Hooper, Utah


                                                                                        Source: Wives of Joseph Smith
                                                                                        http://www.wivesofjosephsmith.org/17-MarthaMcBrideKnight.htm
                                                                                        , she is married or sealed to Joseph Smith Joseph Smith cancel 1805-1844 Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Tragically, Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.

                                                                                        Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                                        https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                                                                        in the summer of 1842 in Nauvoo, Illinois by Heber C. Kimble. info Information Sources: cancel https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/martha-mcbride/

                                                                                          1842

                                                                                          Members of the Relief Society Respond to the "Secret Wife System" Alleged by John C. Bennett

                                                                                          Historical Context

                                                                                          What Critics Are Saying

                                                                                          Response to Critics View

                                                                                          Nineteen members of the Relief Society publish a statement in The Times and Seasons (a monthly church publication), refuting the “secret wife system” alleged by John C. Bennett John C. Bennett cancel 1804-1867 John moved to Nauvoo, Illinois in 1840 where he became a member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. John was a practicing physician, a professor at Willoughby University in Ohio, and mayor of Nauvoo. With time, John began a series of practices including adultery, that removed him from his civil responsibilities and excommunication from the church in 1842. John passed away in Polk City, Iowa on August 5, 1867.

                                                                                          Source: BYU Religious Studies Center
                                                                                          https://rsc.byu.edu/prophets-apostles-last-dispensation/john-cook-bennett
                                                                                          . The statement reads, “We give this certificate to the public to show that J.C. Bennett’s “secret wife system” is a disclose of his own make.” info Information Sources: cancel https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/church-historians-press/the-first-fifty-years-of-relief-society/part-1/1-6?lang=eng https://www.churchhistorianspress.org/the-first-fifty-years-of-relief-society/part-1/1-10#:~:text=In%201842%20nineteen%20Relief%20Society,a%20man%20named%20Orsamus%20F https://site.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/doctrine-and-covenants-historical-resources/people/bio-john-c-bennett?lang=eng https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/john-c-bennett-and-spiritual-wifery/ https://onlinebooks.library.upenn.edu/webbin/serial?id=timseas#:~:text=Times%20and%20Seasons%20was%20a,Christ%20of%20Latter%20Day%20Saints

                                                                                            1842

                                                                                            A Pamphlet Containing False Information on Joseph Smith’s Views on Marriage is Published

                                                                                            Historical Context

                                                                                            What Critics Are Saying

                                                                                            Response to Critics View

                                                                                            Udney Hay Jacob, a non-Latter-day Saint writes a pamphlet titled ‘The Peacemaker,’ stating false accusations of Joseph’s view of marriage. The pamphlet also presented arguments in favor of polygamy as depicted in the Bible. While Joseph was uninvolved in its production, it was printed on a press “owned by Joseph Smith Joseph Smith cancel 1805-1844 Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Tragically, Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.

                                                                                            Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                                            https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                                                                            and operated by John Taylor John Taylor cancel 1808-1887 John Taylor, born on November 1, 1808, in Milnthorpe, Westmorland, England, alongside his wife, Leonora, were baptized in the Church in 1836. He assumed the role of President of the Church on October 10, 1880, and after seven years in this position, he passed away on July 25, 1887, in Kaysville, Utah.

                                                                                            Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                                            https://history.churchofjesuschrist.org/landing/prophets-of-the-restoration/john-taylor?lang=eng
                                                                                            ” and Joseph was listed as the publisher. info Information Sources: cancel https://knowhy.bookofmormoncentral.org/knowhy/who-wrote-the-peace-maker-pamphlet Image Source: An Extract From 'The Peace Maker’ Manuscript Archive.org

                                                                                              1843

                                                                                              Joseph Smith Resumes Plural Marriage

                                                                                              Historical Context

                                                                                              What Critics Are Saying

                                                                                              Response to Critics View

                                                                                              Joseph Smith Joseph Smith cancel 1805-1844 Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Tragically, Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.

                                                                                              Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                                              https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                                                                              was married or sealed to Ruth D. Vose (later Ruth Vose Sayers Ruth Vose Sayers cancel 1808-1884 Ruth Vose was born February 26, 1808 in Watertown, Massachusetts. After introduction to the church in 1832, Ruth was baptized by LDS Prophet Brigham Young Brigham Young cancel 1801-1877 Born in 1801 in Vermont, Brigham Young married his first wife, Miriam Works, in New York in 1824. Both were baptized in the Church in 1832, but shortly after, Miriam passed away from tuberculosis, and Brigham remarried Mary Ann Angell. He served as an Apostle in the Quorum of the Twelve and assumed leadership of the Church after Joseph Smith's death, becoming its prophet in 1847. During his ministry, he orchestrated the westward migration of the Saints and also held the position of Utah's first governor. A strong advocate for the practice of plural marriage, Brigham Young was sealed to over 50 women during his lifetime, including Eliza R. Snow and Zina D. Huntington Jacobs. Together with 16 of his wives, they had a total of 56 children. His leadership continued until his passing on August 29, 1877.

                                                                                              Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                                              https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/brigham-young?lang=eng https://in.churchofjesuschrist.org/gospel-topics/prophet-brigham-young
                                                                                              in 1836 and married non-member Edward Sayers in 1841. Edward and Ruth then moved to Nauvoo, Illinois and lived on a farm. During this time, LDS prophet Joseph Smith was arrested and escaped jail. Through communication with friends, he stayed in hiding at Edward and Ruth's home for a week before moving to a new hiding spot. Six months later, Joseph and Ruth were married for eternity, like other wives of Joseph Smith who were already married, Edward and Ruth stayed married and lived together. Following Joseph's death, Ruth and Edward lived in Boston for five years before ultimately settling in Utah. After the death of her husband in 1861, Ruth passed away in 1884 in Salt Lake City, Utah.


                                                                                              Source: Joseph Smith's Polygamy
                                                                                              https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/ruth-vose/
                                                                                              ) and Flora Ann Woodworth Flora Ann Woodworth cancel 1826-1850 Born in 1846 in New York, Flora Ann Woodworth was born to Lucien and Phebe Woodworth. After contacting the LDS missionaries, the Woodworth family was baptized in 1832 and migrated with early saints in Missouri and Illinois. Much of the records pertaining to Flora and Joseph's marriage are unclear. After Joseph's death, Flora became a widow at seventeen and married a non-member, Carlos Grove months after. In 1846, she traveled with the LDS saints to Salt Lake City, Utah ultimately passing away while on the journey in Iowa. She was presumed to be in her early twenties at the time of her passing.

                                                                                              Source: Joseph Smith's Polygamy
                                                                                              https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/flora-ann-woodworth/
                                                                                              . Ruth D. Vose was married to Edward Sayers, who was not a member of the Church but was good friends with Joseph Smith. As Sayers did not have a strong belief in an afterlife, he requested that Ruth “be sealed to the Prophet for eternity, as he himself should only claim…her in this life.” info Information Sources: cancel https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/ruth-vose/ https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/flora-ann-woodworth/

                                                                                                1843

                                                                                                Joseph Smith is Sealed to Helen Mar Kimball

                                                                                                Historical Context

                                                                                                What Critics Are Saying

                                                                                                Response to Critics View

                                                                                                Joseph Smith Joseph Smith cancel 1805-1844 Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Tragically, Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.

                                                                                                Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                                                https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                                                                                marries Helen Mar Kimball Helen Mar Kimball cancel 1828-1896 Helen Mar Kimball was born in 1828 in Mendon, New York. Helen was the daughter of Heber C. Kimball Heber C. Kimball cancel 1801-1868 Heber Chase Kimball, born on June 14, 1801, in Sheldon, Vermont, and was baptized in April 1832. On February 14, 1835, he was ordained an Apostle. During 1837 to 1838, Heber embarked on an eleven-month mission to England, later returning and moving to Missouri with his family. In 1839, he embarked on a second mission to England, concluding in 1841. A pioneer of the westward migration, Heber was part of the Vanguard Pioneer Company that departed the City Beautiful on February 17, 1846. Heber passed away in Salt Lake City in 1868.

                                                                                                Source: BYU Religious Studies Center
                                                                                                https://rsc.byu.edu/vol-3-no-2-2002/heber-c-kimball-man-faith-integrity https://rsc.byu.edu/prophets-apostles-last-dispensation/heber-chase-kimball
                                                                                                , prominent LDS figure and one of the first members of the quorum of the twelve apostles. Helen was baptized at the age of eight in Kirtland, Ohio and later moved with her family to Missouri and Nauvoo. After discussion with her father, Helen was presented with the idea of becoming one of Joseph's plural wives at the age of fourteen. At first hesitant and against the idea, Helen later agreed to be sealed to Joseph in 1843. Following Joseph's death in 1844, Helen courted and married Horace Whitney in 1846. Helen and Horace migrated with LDS saints across the plains to Utah, she lived past six of her eleven children. Helen passed away in 1896, a lifelong and faithful member of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints.


                                                                                                Source: Joseph Smith's Polygamy
                                                                                                https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/helen-mar-kimball/
                                                                                                , who was fourteen years old. According to her 1881 autobiography, this was arranged by her father, who “[had] a great desire to be connected with the Prophet, Joseph.” While there is still debate over whether this marriage was consummated, it seems unlikely based on evidence. Helen would later publish two booklets defending the principle of plural marriage. info Information Sources: cancel https://rsc.byu.edu/womans-view/appendix-one https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/helen-mar-kimball/ https://archive.bookofmormoncentral.org/content/plural-marriage-taught-prophet-joseph-reply-joseph-smith-editor-lamoni-iowa-herald https://archive.bookofmormoncentral.org/content/why-we-practice-plural-marriage Image Source: Helen Mar Kimball Joseph Smith's Polygamy

                                                                                                  1843

                                                                                                  Emma Hale Smith Facilitates Joseph’s Marriages to Four Women

                                                                                                  Historical Context

                                                                                                  What Critics Are Saying

                                                                                                  Response to Critics View

                                                                                                  Emma Hale Smith Emma Hale Smith cancel 1804-1879 Emma Hale Smith, born on July 10, 1804, in Harmony, Pennsylvania, married Joseph Smith in 1827 and played significant roles in the early Church as a scribe during the translations of the Book of Mormon and the Bible. Baptized into The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in 1830, she moved to Kirtland, Ohio, with the Saints. In 1835, Emma edited the first hymnbook of the Church. After enduring persecution in Missouri, she settled in Nauvoo, Illinois, and became the inaugural president of the Female Relief Society of Nauvoo. Following Joseph Smith's death, Emma remained in Nauvoo, marrying Lewis C. Bidamon and affiliating with the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, led by her son Joseph Smith III. Emma Smith passed away in Nauvoo on April 30, 1879.

                                                                                                  Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                                                  https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/emma-hale-smith?lang=eng
                                                                                                  facilitates Joseph’s marriage to Sarah Lawrence, Maria Lawrence, Eliza Partridge, and Emily Partridge. The Partridge sisters had already been sealed to Joseph that previous March. info Information Sources: cancel https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/sarah-lawrence/ https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/emily-dow-partridge/ https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/eliza-partridge/ https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/maria-lawrence/ Image Source: Eliza Maria Partridge Lyman The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Church History Library

                                                                                                    1843

                                                                                                    Joseph Smith is Sealed to Emma Hale Smith

                                                                                                    Historical Context

                                                                                                    What Critics Are Saying

                                                                                                    Response to Critics View

                                                                                                    Joseph Smith Joseph Smith cancel 1805-1844 Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Tragically, Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.

                                                                                                    Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                                                    https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                                                                                    is sealed to Emma Hale Smith Emma Hale Smith cancel 1804-1879 Emma Hale Smith, born on July 10, 1804, in Harmony, Pennsylvania, married Joseph Smith in 1827 and played significant roles in the early Church as a scribe during the translations of the Book of Mormon and the Bible. Baptized into The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in 1830, she moved to Kirtland, Ohio, with the Saints. In 1835, Emma edited the first hymnbook of the Church. After enduring persecution in Missouri, she settled in Nauvoo, Illinois, and became the inaugural president of the Female Relief Society of Nauvoo. Following Joseph Smith's death, Emma remained in Nauvoo, marrying Lewis C. Bidamon and affiliating with the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, led by her son Joseph Smith III. Emma Smith passed away in Nauvoo on April 30, 1879.

                                                                                                    Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                                                    https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/emma-hale-smith?lang=eng
                                                                                                    in Joseph Smith’s red brick store in Nauvoo, Illinois. info Information Sources: cancel https://www.josephsmithpapers.org/event/js-and-emma-smith-married-for-eternity

                                                                                                      1843

                                                                                                      Hyrum Smith Asks Joseph to Dictate Revelation on Plural Marriage

                                                                                                      Historical Context

                                                                                                      What Critics Are Saying

                                                                                                      Response to Critics View

                                                                                                      In the hopes of helping to cool the tension between Joseph and Emma in regards to plural marriage, Hyrum Smith Hyrum Smith cancel 1800 - 1844 On November 12, 1826, he married Jerusha Barden. In June 1829, he was baptized by his younger brother Joseph Smith Jr. in Seneca Lake. Hyrum’s ministry included being one of the Eight Witnesses to see the gold plates of the Book of Mormon and serving as the second counselor of the First Presidency of the Church while Joseph Smith was President. After his wife, Jerusha’s passing in 1837, Hyrum married Mary Fielding on December 24, 1837. On June 27, 1844, Hyrum was killed by a mob in Carthage jail along with his brother Joseph Smith Jr. 

                                                                                                      Source: BYU Library
                                                                                                      http://archives.lib.byu.edu/repositories/14/resources/7612
                                                                                                      requested his brother to dictate a written revelation on the subject that the former hoped he could use to convince his sister-in-law of the truth and divine origin of the principle. Despite Hyrum’s optimism, Emma remained unconvinced, and destroyed the original several days later with the permission of Joseph, but not before a copy was made. info Information Sources: cancel https://www.josephsmithpapers.org/paper-summary/revelation-12-july-1843-dc-132/1#historical-intro https://bookofmormonevidence.org/faith-crisis-solutions-how-i-resolved-my-questions-regarding-joseph-smiths-polygamy/ https://doctrineandcovenantscentral.org/historical-context/dc-132/

                                                                                                        1843

                                                                                                        Joseph Smith Marries Fanny Young

                                                                                                        Historical Context

                                                                                                        What Critics Are Saying

                                                                                                        Response to Critics View

                                                                                                        On November 2, 1843, Joseph Smith Joseph Smith cancel 1805-1844 Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Tragically, Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.

                                                                                                        Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                                                        https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                                                                                        was sealed to Fanny Young Fanny Young cancel 1787-1859 Born in 1787 to John and Abigail Howe Young in Hopkinton, Massachusetts, Fanny Young, the elder sister of Brigham Young Brigham Young cancel 1801-1877 Born in 1801 in Vermont, Brigham Young married his first wife, Miriam Works, in New York in 1824. Both were baptized in the Church in 1832, but shortly after, Miriam passed away from tuberculosis, and Brigham remarried Mary Ann Angell. He served as an Apostle in the Quorum of the Twelve and assumed leadership of the Church after Joseph Smith's death, becoming its prophet in 1847. During his ministry, he orchestrated the westward migration of the Saints and also held the position of Utah's first governor. A strong advocate for the practice of plural marriage, Brigham Young was sealed to over 50 women during his lifetime, including Eliza R. Snow and Zina D. Huntington Jacobs. Together with 16 of his wives, they had a total of 56 children. His leadership continued until his passing on August 29, 1877.

                                                                                                        Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                                                        https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/brigham-young?lang=eng https://in.churchofjesuschrist.org/gospel-topics/prophet-brigham-young
                                                                                                        , married Roswell Murry in 1832, and although he declined Church involvement, she was baptized later that year; their journey took them to Kirtland, Ohio, Missouri, and Nauvoo, Illinois, where Roswell's passing in 1839 left Fanny widowed at the age of fifty-six. Joseph Smith and Fanny Young were sealed on November 2, 1843. Fanny Young Murry died in Utah in 1859 as a faithful member of the church.


                                                                                                        Source: Joseph Smith's Polygamy
                                                                                                        https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/fanny-young/
                                                                                                        Murry, one of Brigham Young’s older sisters, who was widowed and fifty-six years old. Augusta Adams Young, one of Brigham Young’s wives, was a witness to the sealing. info Information Sources: cancel https://josephsmithspolygamy.org/plural-wives-overview/fanny-young/ Image Source: Affidavits on Celestial Marriage The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

                                                                                                          1844

                                                                                                          The Press Announces the Church’s Practice of Plural Marriage

                                                                                                          Historical Context

                                                                                                          What Critics Are Saying

                                                                                                          Response to Critics View

                                                                                                          On June 7, 1844, the Nauvoo Expositor, a newspaper, established by critics and dissident members of the Church, attacked a number of Church doctrines and teachings, including the practice of plural marriage. They also advocated for the revocation of the Nauvoo Charter, which offered protection and legal recourse for the Saints against persecution. Following the newspaper’s publication, the Nauvoo City Council would gather on June 8 and June 10, 1844, to determine a course of action. info Information Sources: cancel https://site.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/nauvoo-expositor?lang=eng; https://knowhy.bookofmormoncentral.org/knowhy/why-did-the-nauvoo-city-council-order-the-destruction-of-the-nauvoo-expositor-press Image Source: Nauvoo Expositor Destruction by Anthony Sweat Book of Mormon Central

                                                                                                            1844

                                                                                                            Joseph Smith is Killed in Carthage Jail

                                                                                                            Historical Context

                                                                                                            What Critics Are Saying

                                                                                                            Response to Critics View

                                                                                                            Brothers Joseph Smith Joseph Smith cancel 1805-1844 Joseph Smith Jr., born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, was the fifth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. He had significant spiritual experiences that led him to his prophetic calling, including a vision of God the Father and Jesus Christ in 1820. He translated and published the Book of Mormon and established The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. As the leader of the Church, he called Apostles and other leaders, defined doctrines, and guided the community's growth in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Tragically, Joseph Smith was martyred on June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Illinois.

                                                                                                            Source: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
                                                                                                            https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/history/topics/joseph-smith-jr?lang=eng
                                                                                                            and Hyrum Smith Hyrum Smith cancel 1800 - 1844 On November 12, 1826, he married Jerusha Barden. In June 1829, he was baptized by his younger brother Joseph Smith Jr. in Seneca Lake. Hyrum’s ministry included being one of the Eight Witnesses to see the gold plates of the Book of Mormon and serving as the second counselor of the First Presidency of the Church while Joseph Smith was President. After his wife, Jerusha’s passing in 1837, Hyrum married Mary Fielding on December 24, 1837. On June 27, 1844, Hyrum was killed by a mob in Carthage jail along with his brother Joseph Smith Jr. 

                                                                                                            Source: BYU Library
                                                                                                            http://archives.lib.byu.edu/repositories/14/resources/7612
                                                                                                            are martyred in the town jail of Carthage, Illinois by a mob that had broken into the jail. info Information Sources: cancel https://doctrineandcovenantscentral.org/historical-context/dc-135 https://history.churchofjesuschrist.org/content/museum/museum-treasures-powder-horn?lang=eng Image Source: Carthage Jail The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

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